Table Of Contents
There is a fact, or if you wish, a law, governing natural phenomena that are known to date. There is no known exception to this law—it is exact so far we know. The law is called conservation of energy; it states that there is a certain quantity, which we call energy that does not change in manifold changes which nature undergoes. That is a most abstract idea, because it is a mathematical principle; it says that there is a numerical quantity, which does not change when something happens. It is not a description of a mechanism, or anything concrete; it is just a strange fact that we can calculate some number, and when we finish watching nature go through her tricks and calculate the number again, it is the same. Richard Feynman (1961), Les Prix Nobel
Every organism needs energy to survive. We live in a world where we survive on our own chi and use man-made machines to work for us in our quest to live. Every such machine needs energy to run efficiently and to continue to exist. Energy is thus the core of our ability to live and intelligent application of the energy at hand defines our quality of life.
Since the majority of us take life as a matter of fact, we do not realize how much we depend on energy; that it is energy that gets us to school, study, have fun and play; allows us to drive away on weekends and holidays, with or without caravans, and runs our computers, electronic pads and smartphones. Energy lets us email or text or chat with our friends; listen or sway to music of our choice, whether recorded or streaming; stay snug and cozy in winter and refreshingly cool during summers. Looking at it from the other side, it is energy that gives us the ability and capacity to do what we wish; in scientific terms, it is energy that allows us to produce an output, i.e., work.
The amount of global energy is constant, says the Law of Conservation of Energy, first postulated in its present form by William Rankine in 1850: “The sum of all the energies of the universe, actual and potential, is unchangeable.” Today’s textbook physics definition is: “The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant.” This means that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form into another, e.g., chemical energy, a type of potential energy contained in nitroglycerine can be transformed into kinetic energy when exploded.
Energy is not a tangible or physical asset, but sets the stage for the execution of work by operating our gadgets and machines that change their intrinsic or provided type of energy to another. Thus the inverter or alternator converts the chemical energy resident in your car battery into electrical impulses that are sent to the spark plugs in the engine, which purrs into life and makes you mobile – which means that your car battery does work. When you feel the car resonating and hear the soft purr of the engine and your brain recognizes these inputs of vibrations and resonance, work is being done.
If so, our bodies must be primed to detect the presence of energy. We have our sensory organs; our skin detects heat and cold, our eyes pick up light, our ears hear sound while combined senses detect equilibrium and gravitational forces, etc. Our olfactory sensor− the nose− smells food, our primary source of energy. This ability to identify energy goes a long way in helping us understand the environment, sort out and acquire the energy to subsist on, while identifying harmful types of energy sources and guarding oneself from them, for instance, wearing sunglasses or applying protective lotions to parts of the body likely to be exposed to the deleterious UV rays from the sun, like the arms or legs.
As understood today, the quantum of energy available is fixed at a finite value, making it a precious resource which needs be spent prudently. Global population is on the increase as is the industrialization of the developing world. If energy is essential to enhance quality of lives, more and more people are asking for it. Einstein may have revolutionized the concept of energy available, but only a handful of industrialized nations are privy to nuclear energy derived from Einstein’s equation E=mc2. As the economy of a country develops, so does its ability to tap a wider variety of sources that produce energy, and, as a consequence, the energy available to and consumed by each person increases. Harnessing all forms of energy at hand and using it for gainful work reduces the burden on people stuck in archaic concepts of past generation techniques of energy handling.
But there is more to it. Energy cannot be destroyed, but no energy conversion is 100 percent efficient. Though energy is conserved, some energy always transforms into energy which, by a law of nature, is not useful in that specific operation. This is also known as the law of entropy, entropy being a measure of the unavailability of a system’s energy to do work (often called randomness). A dropped ball finally comes to rest on the floor, with each bounce lower than the last, all due to entropy. Looking further, this rule also means that energy flows from high to low – a ball will not roll uphill; energy inputs are needed to roll it uphill. Entropy smoothes out energy differences – heat, pressure, density, and other parameters will spontaneously evolve toward a configuration with maximum entropy and attain equilibrium. This fact affects vehicles running on fuel or any alternative, since high engine efficiency translates into use of a lesser quantity of fuel for a preset level of performance, with lower energy loss.
Units of Energy
Since energy is seen innumerous forms, it has numerous units, each related to the form. There are more than 25 different units of energy. The basic unit of energy is that which is applicable to work or amount of heat as well, viz., the joule. The joule (J), is a derived unit of energy, work, or amount of heat in the Le Système International d’Unités (SI system). It is equal to the energy transferred (or work done) when applying a force of one Newton through a distance of one metre (1 newton metre or N). In the SI system, one can quantify it as 1J = 1 Kg x (m/s)2, i.e., 1 J=1 Kg x m2 x s-2. The joule is also defined as:
- The work required to move an electric charge of one coulomb through an electrical potential difference of one volt, or one ‘”coulomb volt” (C·V), indirectly defining the volt.
- The work required to produce one watt of power for one second, or one “watt second” (W·s), indirectly defining the watt.
- In the Centimeter Gram System, the unit is an erg. One erg is 1x 10-7 joules.
- In atomic physics, the unit is the electronvolt (eV), where 1eV= 1.60217653×10−19 J.
- In electricity, the unit is Kilowatt hour; (kWh); one kWh is equivalent to 3.6×106 J (3600 kJ or 3.6 mJ).
- In Physics, but transferred to the food industry, the unit is the calorie. One calorie is equal to the amount of thermal energy necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1° Celsius, at a pressure of 1 atmosphere under ICAO conditions. By usage, one food calorie is actually 1000 calories. A label that says item X has 6.5 calories means it has 6,500 calories.
- In Explosions, 1 ton of TNT equivalent is equal to 4.2 × 109 joules.
The U.S. has its own units; for reasons unknown, the U.S. does not believe in using the global SI system. In the Engineering and Gravitational System, the basic unit is the foot-pound. One foot-pound is the energy lost or gained on applying a force of one pound-force (lbf) through a displacement of one foot, where one pound-force (lbf) is a non-SI (non-System International) measurement unit of force. (The pound-force is equal to a mass of one avoirdupois pound multiplied by the standard acceleration due to gravity on Earth, which is defined as exactly 9.80665 meter per second². Then one (1) pound-force is equal to 0.45359237 kg × 9.80665 meter per second² = 32.17405 pound × foot per second². The avoirdupois pound system of weights (or more precisely mass) is based on a pound of sixteen ounces).
To compound it all, units like the poundal, dyne, slugs, therms and BTUs are also in vogue. The British thermal unit (BTU) is approximately 1055 J. One BTU is the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a pint of water (which weighs exactly 16 ounces and is at 39.2° F) by 1.0 ° F. Since BTUs are measurements of energy consumption, they can be converted directly to kilowatt-hours (3412 BTUs = 1 kWh) or joules (1 BTU = 1,055.06 joules). In practical terms, it is the amount of heat generated by one lighted match stick. Though 1 Therm = 100,000 BTUs, it is never used in daily life.
Energy Consumption per Person in MBTU
Today, the average person in the United States uses about 330 million BTUs of energy per year. As Chart 1 shows, the world’s average is just 75 million. If global residents brought their energy use to the present US level, the world’s total annual energy consumption would go up more than fourfold – from its current 550 to more than 2,200 Quadrillion BTUs (assuming that the world’s population remains the same).
One BTU is equal to about 252 small calories, or 0.252 kcal. One pound of air-dried wood generates about 7,000 BTU, a gallon of liquid propane (a hydrocarbon) about 92,000 BTU, a gallon of fuel-oil about 140,000 BTU, one barrel of gasoline about 5.25 million BTU, an average ton of coal about 20 million BTU, and one kilowatt-hour of electricity about 3,400 BTU.
The non-standard measures in the USA holds good in weights and measures as well, creating avoidable confusion. The international units (SI units) for volume are the liter and the tonne (1000 Kg). The U.K. uses the liter and the ton (2240 lb, 1016.5 Kg), not the tonne which is equal to 2205 lbs. The U.S. uses the short ton, i.e., 2000 lb or 907.2 Kg. The Imperial gallon is different from the U.S. gallon.
The Basics of Energy
Before we get involved with the topic, it would be prudent to learn a few facts and definitions about Energy. Essentially there are only two types of energy, potential energy and kinetic energy. These two heads will be repeatedly split into component parts named differentially. We also need to understand the difference between mass and weight. Mass (m) is a dimensionless quantity representing the amount of matter in a particle or object. The standard SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). Weight has meaning only when an object having a specific mass is placed in an acceleration field, such as gravitational fields of planets. For example, at the earth’s surface, a kilogram mass weighs about 2.2 pounds. But on Mars, the same kilogram mass would weigh only about 0.8 pounds, and on Jupiter it would weigh roughly 5.5 pounds.
Consider an aircraft flying at 500 mph (800 kph) at a height of 30,000 feet (9 km). It has potential energy which is a function of its weight (mass x gravity) and height, or PE= m.g.h. It also has kinetic energy, which is a function of its mass and velocity and is calculated by using the formula: KE=½mv2. Note that KE varies with the square of the velocity. That is how a small bullet can kill a 180 lb human. Those who have read Max Brand, Zane Grey and Louis L’amour’s Western Books/Comics, dealing with the Wild West 150 years ago will recall that all cowboys carried a heavy 0.45” handgun and used them in shootouts, particularly in face-offs. Accuracy was not so much of a concern as speed of draw, because the gunslinger who shot first and hit his opponent anywhere on the upper body would knock him down, usually killing him. That is also how airliners brought the World Trade Towers down on 9/11!
- Potential Energy: In physics, potential energy is the energy that an object has due to its position in a force field or that a system has due to the configuration of its parts. It is the stored or pent-up energy of an object.
- Kinetic Energy: In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes.
An easy to understand example is archery. When an archer draws the string back, he is working and providing ‘pent up’ potential energy to the ‘arched’ bow via the tautened string. When he releases the string, the released potential energy is or transformed into kinetic energy and transferred to the arrow which empowers it to streak towards the target.
Energy Content of Common Items
Energy Content of Common Fuels in BTU
|A lit matchstick||1||1 barrel (42 gallons) of crude oil||5,800,000|
|Loaf of bread||5100||1 gallon of gasoline||124,000|
|Pound of wood||6000||1 gallon of ethanol||75,000|
|Running TV for 100 hours||28,000||1 gallon of diesel fuel||139,000|
|Gallon of gasoline||125,000||1 gallon of biodiesel fuel||118,300|
|20 days of cooking on gas stove||1,000,000||1 gallon of heating oil||139,000|
|Food for one person for one year||3,500,000||1 cubic foot of natural gas||1,031|
|Apollo 17’s trip to the moon||5,600,000,000||1 gallon of propane||91,000|
|Hiroshima atomic bomb||80,000,000,000||1 short ton of coal||20,754,000|
|1,000 transatlantic jet flights||250,000,000,000||I gallon liquid hydrogen||33,700|
|United transatlantic jet flights||250,000,000,000||1 kilowatt-hour of electricity||3,412|
|United States in 2006||100,000,000,000,000,000
|1 Alkaline D battery||72|
Diverse Forms of Energy:
- Renewable energy: energy that can be replenished in a short amount of time. Energy from the sun and biomass, chemical energy stored in plants and animals are examples.
- Nonrenewable energy: energy sources that have a fixed amount of supply on the earth, because they take millions of years to form. Oil and natural gas are examples.
- Fuel: something consumed to create energy.
- Force: an influence that causes an object to speed up or slow down (i.e., accelerate or decelerate). It is also known as a push or a pull. There are four forces in the universe: gravitational, electromagnetic, the strong nuclear force (important in fusion reactions and holding the nucleus of an atom together), and the weak nuclear force (important in fission reactions).
- Power: work done in a specific amount of time. An equal amount of work done more quickly takes more power. Thus a car accelerating more quickly is said to have more power.
- Energy Efficiency: a measure of the useful energy to the total energy used to do useful work. Usually expressed as a percentage, it is calculated by dividing the useful energy extracted from a system (moving a car) by the total energy used (gasoline used to make the car move) and multiplying by 100 (to get it in percent).
- High Quality Energy: energy that is easy to capture and utilize.
- Energy Conservation: behaviors that result in the use of less energy. Cycling instead of taking a car is an example.
- Energy Efficient Technology: Technology that uses less energy to do the same amount work. A car that gets better fuel mileage is an example.
- Energy Carrier: Something that contains energy that can be directly converted to useful work or heat. Examples include electricity, gasoline, hydrogen, batteries and springs, to name a few. It is the energy we commonly use in our daily lives.
- Fossil fuels: fuels formed from the remains of prehistoric plants and animals – in other words fossils. Examples include coal, petroleum, crude oil and natural gas (ibid).
What is Fossil fuel?
Fossil fuel is a complex, naturally occurring solid, liquid or gaseous mixture containing mostly hydrocarbons, which contains compounds of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur as well. It is formed by natural anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, the age of which is typically millions of years, at times exceeding 600 million years.
Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include coal, petroleum, and natural gas. They range from volatile materials with low carbon: hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquid petroleum to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration estimates that in 2013, the primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 56.19 quadrillion BTU, coal 38.07 and natural gas 59.52, crude oil 15.77 and other fossil fuels totaling 143.90 quadrillion BTU, amounting to 313.45 quadrillion BTU share for fossil fuels in primary energy consumption. Non-fossil sources in 2013 totaled 35.1 quadrillion BTU.
The age fossil fuels were formed includes the Carboniferous Period, part of the Paleozoic Era. “Carboniferous” gets its name from carbon, the basic element in coal and other fossil fuels. This period occurred from about 360 to 286 million years ago. At the time, the land was covered with swamps filled with huge trees, ferns and other large leafy plants. The water and seas were filled with algae – the green living matter found in a pool of stagnant water. Algae is actually millions of very small plants.
Coal: Coal is a type of chemical non-renewable energy source which burns in the presence of Oxygen and an ignition spark. Coal is used primarily to generate electricity but also to make steel, fertilizer, other industrial products and in some parts of the world, coal is still used directly for cooking and heating. Coal is only found in sedimentary basins, which are warpings in the earth’s crust where sedimentary rocks have been deposited.
Some deposits of coal, however, can be traced during the time of the dinosaurs, for example, thin carbon layers can be found during the late Cretaceous Period (65 million years ago) – the time of Tyrannosaurus Rex. But the main deposits of fossil fuels are from the Carboniferous Period and earlier, dating back to 600+ million years ago. There is very little chance of coal turning into oil in the future. The lucky mine-owner may find a diamond or two, but not petroleum or crude oil.
Coal Fuel Facts: The United States has the world’s largest coal reserves, about 268 billion short tons. This is enough coal to last approximately 236 years at today’s level of use. World coal reserves are 1,000 billion short tons (1 short ton of coal = 20,754,000 BTU of energy).
Types of coal: Coal is classified into four main types, or ranks (anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous and lignite). Classification depends on the amounts and types of carbon the coal contains and on the amount of heat energy the coal can produce. The rank of a deposit of coal depends on the pressure and heat that acted on the plant debris as it sank deeper and deeper over millions of years. The higher ranks of coal contain more heat-producing energy.
- Anthracite contains 86-97 percent carbon, and generally has a heating value slightly higher than bituminous coal. It accounts for 0.2 percent of the coal mined in the United States. All of the anthracite mines in the United States are located in northeastern Pennsylvania.
- Bituminous coal contains 45-86 percent carbon. Bituminous coal was formed under high heat and pressure. Bituminous coal in the United States is between 100 and 300 million years old. It is the most abundant rank of coal found in the United States, accounting for nearly half of U.S. coal production. Bituminous coal is used to generate electricity and is an important fuel and raw material for the steel and iron industries. In 2012, 48 percent of the U.S. coal produced was bituminous. West Virginia, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania are the largest producers of bituminous coal.
- Sub-bituminous coal has a lower heating value than bituminous coal. Sub-bituminous coal typically contains 35-45 percent carbon. Most sub-bituminous coal in the United States is at least 100 million years old. About 44 percent of the coal produced in the United States is sub-bituminous. Wyoming is the leading source of sub-bituminous coal.
- Lignite is the lowest rank of coal with the lowest energy content. Lignite coal deposits tend to be relatively young coal deposits that were not subjected to extreme heat or pressure, containing 25-35 percent carbon. Lignite is crumbly and has high moisture content. There are 20 lignite mines in the United States, producing about 7 percent of U.S. coal. Most lignite is mined in Texas and North Dakota. Lignite is mainly burned at power plants to generate electricity.
BOX 1. Categories and Estimated Amounts of U.S. Coal Reserves as of January 1, 2014:
Recoverable reserves at producing mines totaled 19,745 million short tons. Recoverable reserves at producing mines represent the quantity of coal that can be recovered (mined) from existing coal reserves at active mines. These reserves essentially reflect the working inventory at producing mines.
Estimated recoverable reserves totaled 256,709 million short tons. Estimated recoverable reserves is coal in the demonstrated reserve base considered recoverable after excluding coal estimated to be unavailable because of land use restrictions, and after applying assumed mining recovery rates. This estimate does not include specific economic feasibility criteria.
The demonstrated reserve base was estimated to contain 479,914 million short tons. The demonstrated reserve base is composed of coal resources that have been identified to specified levels of accuracy and may support economic mining under current technologies. Demonstrated reserve base includes publicly-available data on coal that has been mapped and verified to be technologically minable.
As the trees and plants died, they sank to the bottom of the swamps of oceans. They formed layers of a spongy material called peat. Over many hundreds of years, the peat was covered by sand and clay and other minerals, which turned into a type of rock called sedimentary. More and more rock piled on top of more rock, and its incessantly increasing weight began to press down on the peat. The peat was squeezed until the water came out of it. This sequestered organic matter was exposed to immense heat and pressure from the earth’s interior for millions of years. This process physically changed the original decaying biomass and created the fossil fuels we use today, i.e., over millions of years, it turned into coal, or, if allowed to move laterally through fissures, gradually built up into oil, petroleum, and natural gas.
By definition, fossil fuels are a renewable resource, as they are continually being formed via natural processes as plants and animals die and then decompose and become trapped beneath sediment. However, fossil fuels are considered to be non-renewable resources because they take millions of years to form, and known viable reserves are being depleted much faster than new ones are being made.
There is a general conception that when fossil fuels are found under solid ground, that ground will be part of a desert, as is mainly the case today, with most underground petroleum reserves found in the sands of Saudi Arabia and the Middle East countries.
What is not known is that only a small portion of this crude oil came about as a consequence of decomposing dead organisms buried under solid ground. Most of the crude oil actually migrated to underground locations from under the seas! 70 percent of the earth’s surface is covered by water and the living organisms therein far exceed those on and under solid ground. The undersea organisms comprise of ancient fossilized organic materials, such as zooplankton and algae. Vast quantities of these remains settled to sea or lake bottoms, mixing with sediments and being buried under anoxic conditions. As the number of layers increased with time, their density increased, causing a build-up of intense heat and pressure in the lower regions. These conditions changed the organic matter into a waxy material known as ‘kerogen’. Petroleum is formed by the breaking down of large molecules of fats, oils and waxes that contribute to the formation of kerogen.
Because petroleum is a fluid, and also due to continuous geologic tectonic movements, it is able to migrate through the earth as it forms. This migration is slow, over millions of years. Hydrocarbons migrate because oil and gas are less dense than water, so they try to rise toward the Earth’s surface to get above groundwater. Natural gas, being less dense, floats above the oil. This buoyancy tends to drive both oil and gas upwards. Typically, a hydrocarbon system must have a good migration pathway, such as a set of permeable fractures, in order for large volumes of hydrocarbons to move (ibid). Oil companies pray for the absence of migration pathways, so that the oil and gaseous bodies become static pools.
Sources of Primary Energy
The sources of primary energy on Earth come from:
- The sun
- The earth’s heat
- The wind
- Water (rivers, lakes, tides, and oceans)
- Fossil fuels – coal, oil, and natural gas
- Radioactive minerals
Some other primary forms of energy, such as the earth’s magnetic field, lightning, and sound, are not listed, as they are not yet harnessed as useful sources of energy for doing work. Another look at the sources of primary energy on Earth reveals a paradox! None of them can be used directly. They have to first be carried or converted−unusual for something primary.
Our every day fuels, electricity and gasoline for example, cannot be listed. The reason is that these are secondary forms of energy and they are converted primary energy sources. Even natural gas, piped or bottled and commonly used in heating homes and cooking, is a processed form of crude gas, which makes it usable as a fuel for your home.
Solar Energy: The sun’s rays emanate as fusion energy, after a nuclear reaction. Hydrogen, which formed soon after the universe formed, is compressed in the sun by gravity and forces two hydrogen atoms to fuse into one helium atom. There is a transaction loss, so helium has less mass than the two hydrogen atoms, the missing mass being converted into energy via E=mc2. The energy that reaches us is solar radiation, also known as radiant energy or electromagnetic radiation, of which light is the visible portion of the electromagnetic radiation that reaches us. All said, the electromagnetic radiation that reaches the earth was released during fusion, initiated by gravitational compression of hydrogen in the sun.
The electromagnetic spectrum is more familiar than we think. The microwave used to heat food and the cell phones we use are part of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. The light we see is also part of the electromagnetic spectrum. This visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum consists of the colors that we see in a rainbow – VIBGYOR.
Waves in the electromagnetic spectrum vary in size from very long radio waves the size of buildings, to very short gamma-rays smaller than the size of the nucleus of an atom.
The Complete Electromagnetic Spectrum
Uses: Solar energy can be used directly to heat our homes, to generate electricity using solar panels or solar furnaces that heat water to form steam to drive an electric generation plant. The sun also drives the water cycle, the wind, and provides energy for biomass, all of which can be converted to useful energy.
Scientists are working to make fusion work on earth, but there are many hurdles. To use fusion, great heat is needed, and the reactions hard to contain. Three Mile Island and Chernobyl come to mind. The benefits are you get huge amounts of energy from very little fuel, and it is renewable with no harmful radiation. Scientists believe we are at least 25 years away from harnessing this capability.
Solar Fuel Facts: The sun has enough hydrogen fuel to last another 5 billion years. The sun produces 386 billion billion megawatts of energy, of which only a tiny fraction reaches earth’s surface, which is about 1,700 kilowatt-hours/m² per year. Not all of this energy is usable for work however (ibid).
Energy from Water: Energy from water can be derived in several manners:
v From the kinetic energy of moving water in rivers
v From the potential energy in lakes formed by damming rivers
v From the kinetic energy when water moves in response to tides
v From the kinetic energy of waves in the ocean
v From the thermal energy in the ocean
The most commonly used energy from water is the kinetic energy in fast running rivers and the potential energy stored in lakes formed by damming rivers. This primary energy source is converted by the sun, which causes water to evaporate, forming clouds. If rain falls in higher elevations, it runs downhill via gravity, forming rivers. The running water can be used directly, or dammed to form a lake which can be emptied to create electrical energy on demand. Tidal waves can be channelized and used to drive a turbine and generate electricity.
Water Fuel Facts: Water is currently the leading renewable energy source used by electric utilities to generate electric power. Seven percent of U.S. energy comes from hydroelectric plants (400 thousand megawatts). The world produces 29 quadrillion Btu of water generated energy. We need a tidal range of about 10 feet to be able to generate electricity using tides. A temperature difference of 25 degrees Celsius is needed to use the thermal energy of the oceans effectively. The total power of waves breaking on the world’s coastlines is 2.5-3 million megawatts. This video explains hydropower.
Wind Energy: Wind is the movement of the air. Solar energy heats the earth, but since the earth does not heat equally everywhere, some air masses are hotter in some places and cooler in others. The ocean does not heat up as quickly as the land during the day, and thus air over the oceans can be cooler than air masses over land at equivalent latitudes. Likewise, it is hotter at the equator than at the poles. It is these temperature differences that drive the wind. Hot air expands and rises. Cooler air rushes in to take the place of the rising hot air, creating wind.
Energy Type: Wind is a type of kinetic energy formed when air moves and used to move sail boats, to directly cool houses and factories, to evaporate water to make salt and cool buildings, to pump water from the ground, and to move wind turbines to generate electricity. The wind used to be used to
drive machines that grind wheat or cereals like corn into flour or a powder.
Wind Fuel Facts: The wind will last as long as the sun shines. The U.S. ranks third in wind power capacity, behind Germany and Spain. Worldwide energy generation from wind is 94 gigawatts, which accounts for about one percent of the world’s energy use. The U.S. currently gets 0.4 percent of its energy from the wind, about 18 billion Kilowatt-hours each year. Wind generated energy in the U.S. has increased by over 40 percent in recent years. The states with the most wind generated power are California, Texas, Iowa, Minnesota, and Oklahoma. A wind speed of at least 25 – 30 kilometers/hour is needed for electricity generation.
Biomass Energy: Biomass is organic material made from plants and animals. Materials such as wood, agricultural crop wastes, fast-growing willow and switchgrass crops, food crops, animal wastes, garbage, methane from rotting landfills, and ethanol from corn and other crops can all be used as renewable sources of energy. Biomass can also be converted into fuels that we can use to run our vehicles as biogas or as fuel to light fires to cook food. Plants use the process of photosynthesis to convert water and carbon dioxide from the air into sugars and the oxygen we breathe.
Photosynthesis is chemically written as:
Water + Carbon dioxide + Sunlight = Glucose + Oxygen or
6H2O + 6CO2 + Radiant energy = C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Biomass Fuel Facts: Biomass is the oldest energy source. It makes up about 3 percent of the U.S. energy supply. The most common biomass fuel is wood. Biofuels can be used directly for heating and cooking. They are our most common food source. Biomass can be converted into the transportation fuels ethanol and biodiesel, or converted into methane gas.
Geothermal Energy: Geothermal energy is the heat within the earth. The heat when the earth formed 4.5 billion years ago would have radiated out to space by now, leaving a cold planet. The presence of radioactive elements, like Uranium, Potassium, and Thorium has allowed the earth to retain a hot interior. These radioactive elements are unstable and decay through fission reactions into energy and smaller more stable atoms. The energy creates the earth’s heat, which moves via conduction, convection, and magma flow towards the surface.
The temperature at the core of the earth, some 4,000 miles below the surface, is hotter than the surface of the sun. This heat is located too far below the surface to reach; because the earth is a good insulator, the heat does not reach the surface very easily. The best places to get geothermal energy are where there is current or geologically recent (within the last few million years) volcanic activity near the surface of the earth. The earth is hotter in those areas, and hot water springs or spas may be present that can be used for energy.
Geothermal Fuel Facts: The amount of heat within the upper 30,000 feet of Earth’s surface contains 50,000 times more energy than all the oil and natural gas resources in the world. But most of that energy is not usable energy.
Nuclear Energy from Uranium: Uranium, about 100 times more common than silver, is found in the earth. Uranium 235, which is the isotope most used for energy production, is a natural isotope of uranium that has a short half-life (decays faster and more easily), but is much rarer than the more common uranium 238 (uranium 235 is only 0.7 percent of all uranium atoms). Neutrons hitting uranium 235 can cause it to split into smaller atoms, releasing energy. Fission is a natural process that happens in the earth all of the time. Uranium is used primarily to generate electricity.
Uranium Fuel Facts: Nuclear power supplies 11 percent of the world’s energy needs. Nuclear power accounts for about 19 percent of the total electricity generated in the U.S. There are 104 nuclear power plants in the United States.
Oil and Natural Gas: Oil and natural gas deposits are not found everywhere. They are found in certain sedimentary basins, which are down warpings in the earth’s crust where sedimentary rocks have been deposited. A good example is the Gulf of Mexico. More information on the formation and location of oil and natural gas is available at “Adventures in Energy.”
Fuel Facts: There are still a lot of oil and natural gas in the world, with new technology allowing us to develop hard to get at reserves with minimal environmental impact. We find new reserves every year. U.S. natural gas reserves are 211,000 billion cubic feet. World natural gas reserves are 6,000 trillion cubic feet. World natural gas consumption is 100 trillion cubic feet per year. U.S. natural gas consumption is 22,000 billion cubic feet per year. 1 cubic foot of natural gas = 1,031 Btu of energy.
U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Sites
Alternative Fuel for the USA
The United States consumed 18.6 million barrels per day (MMbd) of petroleum products during 2012, making it the world’s largest petroleum consumer. The U.S. was third in crude oil production at 6.5 MMbd. That said, crude oil alone does not comprise all U.S. petroleum supplies. Import volume drops because crude oil expands in the refining process, liquid fuel is extracted while processing natural gas, and there are other sources of liquid fuel, including biofuels. These additional supplies totaled 4.8 MMbd in 2012.
The United States imported 11.0 MMbd of crude oil and refined petroleum products in 2012. We also exported 3.2 MMbd of crude oil and petroleum products, so our net imports (imports minus exports) equaled 7.4 MMbd. The U.S. imported 2.1 MMbd of petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, jet fuel, and other products while exporting 3.1 MMbd of products, making the United States a net exporter of petroleum products.
The U.S. imported less than half its petroleum product needs starting 2010, the first time that’s happened in 13 years—and the trend continued in 2011. We’re relying less on imported oil for a number of reasons, not least that production is up here in the United States.
In fact, America is producing more oil today than at any time in the last eight years. As part of U.S.Govt strategy to increase safe and responsible oil production in the U.S., the U.S. has opened millions of new acres for oil and gas exploration and we now have more working oil and gas rigs than the rest of the world—combined.
But prices haven’t dropped. Growing demand in countries like India, Brazil, and China, which tripled the number of cars on the road in the last five years, will drive prices even higher over the long term. More drilling is not the solution. Relying on the fossil fuels of the last century won’t be enough, especially as demand keeps increasing and stored volume deep down is constant. We need an all-out, all-of-the-above strategy that develops every available source of American energy. This includes everything from tapping our offshore oil supplies and vast natural gas reserves, to doubling down on clean energy resources like wind and solar power, and developing new technologies that help us use less energy altogether. As President Obama said in his State of the Union address on 24 Jan 2012, “With less than 2 percent of the world’s oils reserves, however,
the United States must find new ways to produce the energy we need. We’ve nearly doubled our use of renewable energy in the past few years, and are back on top as the world’s leading investor in clean energy. But more can and must be done to further develop our own energy resources and transition to cleaner sources of energy.”
Over half of U.S. petroleum imports come from the Western Hemisphere. Over 50 percent of U.S. crude oil and petroleum products imports came from the Western Hemisphere (North, South, and Central America, and the Caribbean, including U.S. territories) during 2012. About 29 percent of our imports of crude oil and petroleum products came from the Persian Gulf countries of Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Our largest sources of net crude oil and petroleum product imports were Canada and Saudi Arabia.
The top sources of net crude oil and petroleum product imports are placed left.
Unfortunately, the U.S.’s dependence on oil imports, as also the EU, places it in a compromised position vis-à-vis safety. The U.S.’s addiction to oil is a threat to our national security, as well as our economy and our environment. Four major issues need to be addressed.
- Transportation: The U.S. uses nearly 400 million gallons of oil every day moving people in automobiles, goods on freight trucks, air travel, rail and transit. Of all the oil used in the U.S., 70 percent is consumed by transportation. Cars and light trucks use nine million barrels of oil per day.
- National Security: Of the imported petroleum Americans consume, 68 percent is supplied by countries at “high” or “very high risk” re instability. Oil dependence gives leverage and money to potential adversaries.
- Economic Security: Americans send over $1 billion abroad every day to pay for oil, resulting in lost jobs and increasing dollars in the hands of foreigners who we increasingly rely upon to finance our deficits.
- Environmental Impact: The BP oil disaster in the Gulf of Mexico is an example of what could happen again if we blindly increase off-shore drilling. Transportation is responsible for approximately one-third of all U.S. carbon dioxide emissions.
- Enforce EPA-established new corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. Gradually increase real-world fuel economy to about 45 mpg for the average car and 32 mpg for the average truck, saving more than $1.7 trillion p.a. in fuel costs by 2025.
Picking up the gauntlet will be a hard choice and will require personal sacrifices. Some solutions on offer are:
1. Tightening fuel economy standards for all vehicles;
2. Promoting the development and deployment of electric vehicles of all types;
3. Investing in rail for freight and also passengers;
4. Banning diesel light vehicles;
5. Creating livable communities where transit, walking and biking are real and oil-free choices and explore bio-fuel, water and hydrogen fuel as alternatives to oil (ibid).
We have seen that the sources of primary energy on Earth come from the sun, the earth’s heat, the wind, water (rivers, lakes, tides, and oceans), fossil fuels – coal, oil, and natural gas; biomass, electricity and radioactive minerals. If fossil fuels and electricity were to be removed, we could derive alternate sources of energy from the other listed primary sources or more.
Hydrogen is a chemical element (H) and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Hydrogen is the simplest element. An atom of hydrogen consists of only one proton and one electron. It’s also the most plentiful element in the universe. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most non-metallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms. Despite its simplicity and abundance, hydrogen doesn’t occur naturally as a gas on the Earth – it’s always combined with other elements, like water, a combination of hydrogen and oxygen (H2O).
Hydrogen is also found in many organic compounds, notably the hydrocarbons that make up many of our fuels, such as gasoline, natural gas, methanol, and propane. Hydrogen can be separated from hydrocarbons through the application of heat – a process known as reforming. Currently, most hydrogen is made this way from natural gas. An electrical current can also be used to separate water into its components of oxygen and hydrogen (ibid). This process is known as electrolysis. Some algae and bacteria, using sunlight as their energy source, even give off hydrogen under certain conditions.
Hydrogen is high in energy, yet an engine that burns pure hydrogen produces almost no pollution. NASA has used liquid hydrogen since the 1970s to propel the space shuttle and other rockets into orbit. Hydrogen fuel cells power the shuttle’s electrical systems, producing a clean byproduct – pure water, which the crew drinks.
A fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, heat, and water. Fuel cells are often compared to batteries. Both convert the energy produced by a chemical reaction into usable electric power. However, the fuel cell will produce electricity as long as fuel (hydrogen) is supplied, never losing its charge.
Fuel cells are a promising technology for use as a source of heat and electricity for buildings, and as an electrical power source for electric motors propelling vehicles. Fuel cells operate best on pure hydrogen. But fuels like natural gas, methanol, or even gasoline can be reformed to produce the hydrogen required for fuel cells. Some fuel cells even can be fueled directly with methanol, without using a reformer.
In the future, hydrogen could also join electricity as an important energy carrier. An energy carrier moves and delivers energy in a usable form to consumers. Renewable energy sources, like the sun and wind, can’t produce energy all the time. But they could, for example, produce electric energy and hydrogen, which can be stored until it’s needed. Hydrogen can also be transported (like electricity) to locations where it is needed.
Hydrogen Benefits and Considerations
Hydrogen can be produced from diverse domestic resources with the potential for near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Once produced, hydrogen generates power in a fuel cell, emitting only water vapor and warm air. It holds promise for growth in both the stationary and transportation energy sectors.
As feared earlier, the United States relies heavily on foreign oil to power its transportation sector. With much of the worldwide petroleum reserves located in politically volatile countries, the United States is vulnerable to supply disruptions. Hydrogen can be produced domestically from resources like natural gas, coal, solar energy, wind, and biomass. When used to power highly efficient fuel cell vehicles, hydrogen holds the promise of offsetting petroleum in transportation. Energy security is no longer compromised.
Public Health and Environment
More than 50 percent of the U.S. population lives in areas where air pollution levels are high enough to negatively impact public health and the environment. Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles—such as nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter—are a major source of this pollution. Hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles emit none of these harmful substances. Their only emission is H2O—water and warm air.
The environmental and health benefits are even greater when hydrogen is produced from low- or zero-emission sources, such as solar, wind, and nuclear energy and fossil fuels with advanced emission controls and carbon sequestration. Because the transportation sector accounts for about one-third of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions (affecting climate change), using these sources to produce hydrogen for transportation can slash greenhouse gas emissions.
Hydrogen’s energy content by volume is low. This makes storing hydrogen a challenge because it requires high pressures, low temperatures, or chemical processes to be stored compactly. Overcoming this challenge is important for light-duty vehicles because they often have limited size and weight capacity for fuel storage.
The storage capacity for hydrogen in light-duty vehicles should enable a driving range of more than 300 miles to meet consumer needs. Because hydrogen has a low volumetric energy density compared with gasoline, storing this much hydrogen on a vehicle currently requires a larger tank than most conventional vehicles.
To be competitive in the marketplace, the cost of fuel cells will have to decrease substantially without compromising vehicle performance. The Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Office make up plans and projections for the future of hydrogen and fuel cells.
Hydrogen can be produced from diverse domestic resources with the potential for near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Once produced, hydrogen generates power in a fuel cell, emitting only water vapor and warm air. It holds promise for growth in both the stationary and transportation energy sectors (ibid).
−Availability. Hydrogen is only available at a handful of locations, mostly in California, though more hydrogen fuelling stations are planned for the future.
−Vehicle Cost & Availability. Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), which run on hydrogen, are far more expensive than conventional vehicles, and not yet available for sale to the general public. However, costs have decreased significantly, and commercially available FCVs are expected within the next few years. Volkswagen AG felt cars powered by hydrogen fuel cells will probably struggle catching on beyond Japan’s borders. Government subsidies of as much as 3 million yen ($28,500) a vehicle offered in Japan will probably be too high for other countries to match. Even in Japan, refueling will be impractical because handling hydrogen is challenging and building out infrastructure inordinately expensive.
−Onboard Fuel Storage. It is difficult to store enough hydrogen onboard an FCV to go as far as a comparable gasoline vehicle between fillups. Some FCVs have recently demonstrated ranges that are comparable to conventional vehicles—about 300 to 400 miles between fillups—but this must be achievable across different vehicle makes and models and without compromising customer expectations of space, performance, safety, or cost. Other challenges related to FCVs must also be overcome, like:
−Fuel Cell Durability and Reliability. Fuel cell systems are not yet as durable as internal combustion engines, especially in some temperature and humidity ranges. Fuel cell stack durability today is about half of what is needed for commercialization. Durability has increased substantially over the past few years from 29,000 miles to 75,000 miles, but experts believe a 150,000-mile expected lifetime is necessary for FCVs to compete with gasoline vehicles.
−Getting Hydrogen to Consumers. The current infrastructure for producing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen to consumers cannot yet support the widespread adoption of FCVs. In 2013, H2USA was launched as a public-private partnership between DOE and other federal agencies, automakers, state government, academic institutions, and additional stakeholders to coordinate research and identify cost-effective solutions for deploying hydrogen infrastructure.
In the U.S., hydrogen is transported safely through 700 miles of pipelines, and 70 million gallons of liquid hydrogen is transported annually by truck over U.S. highways without incident. Both indoor and outdoor hydrogen refueling stations are located in several dozen states and have safely dispensed compressed hydrogen for use in passenger vehicles, buses, trucks, forklifts, and other types of vehicles.
−Public Education. Fuel cell technology must be embraced by consumers before its benefits can be realized. As with any new vehicle technology, consumers may have concerns about the dependability and safety of these vehicles when they first hit the market; they must also become familiar with a new kind of fuel. Public education can accelerate this process.
Hydrogen Production and Delivery
Most of the hydrogen in the United States is produced by steam reforming of natural gas. For the near term, this production method will continue to dominate. Researchers at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are developing advanced processes to produce hydrogen economically from sustainable resources.
- Biological Water Splitting: Certain photosynthetic microbes use light energy to produce hydrogen from water in their metabolic processes. NREL researchers are trying to create new genetic forms of organisms that can sustain hydrogen production in the presence of oxygen. In short, hydrogen is produced from water using sunlight and specialized microorganisms, such as green algae and cyanobacteria.
- Fermentation: NREL scientists are developing pretreatment technologies to convert lignocellulosic biomass into sugar-rich feedstocks that can be directly fermented to produce hydrogen, ethanol, and high-value chemicals. Researchers are also working to identify a consortium of Clostridium that can directly ferment hemicellulose to hydrogen. In short, hydrogen is produced from the fermentation of renewable biomass materials.
- Conversion of Biomass and Wastes: Hydrogen can be produced via pyrolysis or gasification of biomass resources such as agricultural residues like peanut shells; consumer wastes including plastics and waste grease; or biomass specifically grown for energy uses. Biomass pyrolysis produces a liquid product (bio-oil) that contains a wide spectrum of components that can be separated into valuable chemicals and fuels, including hydrogen.
- Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Water Splitting: The cleanest way to produce hydrogen is by using sunlight to directly split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The photovoltaic industry is being used for creating PEC light harvesting systems that split water. In the PEC water splitting process, hydrogen is produced from water using sunlight and specialized semiconductors.
- Solar Thermal Water Splitting: A High-Flux Solar Furnace reactor concentrates solar energy and generates temperatures between 1,000 and 2,000 degrees Celsius, providing the ultra-high temperatures required for thermochemical reaction cycles to produce hydrogen.
- Renewable Electrolysis: The renewable electrolysis process uses renewable electricity to produce hydrogen by passing an electrical current through water.
- Hydrogen Production and Delivery Pathway Analysis: NREL is focusing on sustainable hydrogen production and delivery pathways, ensuring cost effective status improvements via technology advancements. Their primary aim is to provide 150,000-mile durable delivery systems (ibid).
Liquefaction and Delivery in the UK
Hydrogen undergoes liquefaction at a temperature of 20 K (–253 °C). Theoretically, only about four MJ kg-1 must be removed from the gas but the cooling process has a very low Carnot cycle efficiency so even large plants require 30 MJ kg-1 to liquefy hydrogen. However, a substantial amount of expensive electricity is required. The energy efficiency of liquefaction varies from 68 percent to 84 percent, with larger plants being more efficient. Engineers in the UK are working at designing large plants and assuming a 1600 km round-trip (72 deliveries per year) per road tanker. They are also studying transfer by ship, tubes and pipelines.
Fuel Cell Cars
A fuel cell vehicle (FCV) or fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is a type of vehicle which uses a fuel cell to power its on-board electric motor and has the potential to revolutionize our transportation systems. They are more efficient than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and produce no harmful tailpipe exhaust—they emit water vapor and warm air and are considered Zero Emission Vehicles.
Fuel cell vehicles and the hydrogen infrastructure to fuel them are in an early stage of deployment. The U.S. Department of Energy is leading government and industry efforts to make hydrogen-powered vehicles an affordable, environmentally friendly, and safe transportation option. Hydrogen is considered an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and qualifies for alternative fuel vehicle tax credits.
Fuel cells in vehicles create electricity to power an electric motor, generally using oxygen from the air and hydrogen. Depending on the process, however, producing the hydrogen used in the vehicle may create pollutants. Fuel cells have been used in various kinds of vehicles including forklifts, especially in indoor applications where their clean emissions are important to air quality, and in space applications. Commercial production fuel cell automobiles are currently being deployed in California by one auto manufacturer, with additional manufacturers expected to join in. Furthermore, fuel cells are being developed and tested in buses, boats, motorcycles and bicycles, among other kinds of vehicles.
FCEVs use a completely different propulsion system from conventional vehicles and can be two to three times more efficient. They also increase U.S. energy security and strengthen the economy, a concern voiced volubly and referred to earlier in this essay.
FCEVs are fueled with pure hydrogen gas stored directly on the vehicle. Similar to conventional vehicles, they can fuel in less than 10 minutes and have a driving range of around 300 miles. FCEVs can be equipped with other advanced technologies to increase efficiency, such as regenerative braking systems, which capture the energy lost during braking and store it. Major auto original equipment manufacturers started offering production vehicles to the public in certain markets in 2014.
As of now, there is limited hydrogen infrastructure, with 10 hydrogen fueling stations for automobiles publicly available in the U.S., but investments have been planned to build more hydrogen stations, particularly in California. New stations are also planned in Japan and Germany. Critics doubt whether hydrogen will be efficient or cost effective for automobiles, as compared with other zero emission technologies.
Production of the Honda FCX Clarity began in 2008, and was available for leasing customers in Japan and Southern California. In 2014 Honda announced the end of production of the FCX Clarity for the 2015 model. From 2008 to 2014, Honda leased a total of 45 FCX units in the US. The Hyundai ix35 FCEV Fuel Cell vehicle is available for lease. In 2014, a total of 54 units were leased. There are over 20 other FCEVs prototypes and demonstration cars have been released since 2009. Automobiles such as the GM HydroGen4, Toyota FCHV-adv and Mercedes-Benz F-Cell are pre-commercial examples of fuel cell electric vehicles. Fuel cell electric vehicles have driven more than 3 million miles, with more than 27,000 refuelings.
Sales of the Toyota Mirai to government and corporate customers began in Japan on December 15, 2014. Pricing started at ¥6.7 million (~US$57,400) before taxes and a government incentive of ¥2 million (~US$19,600). Experts estimate that Toyota will initially lose about $100,000 on each Mirai sold. Initially sales are not available to individual retail customers. In 2014, domestic orders had already reached over 400 Mirais, surpassing Japan’s first-year sales target, and as a result, there is a waiting list of more than a year. Toyota plans to build 700 vehicles for global sales during 2015.
How Fuel Cell Vehicles Work
Like battery electric vehicles, fuel cell electric vehicles use electricity to power a motor located near the vehicle’s wheels. In contrast to other electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles produce their primary electricity using a fuel cell powered by hydrogen, rather than drawing electricity from a battery. During the vehicle design process, the vehicle manufacturer controls the power of the vehicle by changing the fuel cell size and controls the amount of energy stored on board by changing the hydrogen fuel tank size. This is different than a battery electric vehicle where the amount of power and energy available are both closely tied to the battery size.
The most common type of fuel cell for vehicle applications is the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. In a PEM fuel cell, an electrolyte membrane is sandwiched between a positive electrode (cathode) and a negative electrode (anode). Hydrogen is introduced to the anode and oxygen (usually from air) to the cathode. The hydrogen molecules break apart into protons and electrons because of an electrochemical reaction in the fuel cell catalyst. Protons, travel through the membrane to the cathode. The electrons are forced to travel through an external circuit to perform work (providing power to the car) then recombine with the protons on the cathode side, where the protons, electrons, and oxygen molecules combine to form water.
Comparison of Fuel Economy Expressed in MPGe for Hydrogen FCVs December 2014
|Vehicle||Model year||Combined fuel
|Honda FCX Clarity||2014||59 mpg-e||58 mpg-e||60 mpg-e||231 mi (372 km)|
|Hyundai Tucson Fuel Cell||2015||49 mpg-e||48 mpg-e||50 mpg-e||265 mi (426 km)|
- One kg of hydrogen is roughly equivalent to one U.S. gallon of gasoline.
- Fuel economy expressed in miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPGe)
A report by consultancy IHS Auto thought fuel cells were barely going to trouble the scoreboard. IHS Auto felt that by 2020 regular hybrids and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) will account for almost five per cent of global sales compared with less than one per cent for electric only vehicles. By 2025, battery-only will have slowly expanded to 1.5 per cent, while PHEVs and hybrids will push just past six per cent. Fuel cell vehicles will barely register at all by 2025.
Other applications are buses, boats, forklifts, motorcycles, bicycles, unmanned aerial vehicles, aircraft, submarines and more.
The Future of Hydrogen Vehicles
Possible hydrogen vehicles in the future could be:
- Vehicles with internal combustion engines using pure hydrogen, or using a mix of hydrogen and natural gas.
- Vehicles with fuel cells that use hydrogen that’s produced either on-board by converting liquid fuels (gasoline, ethanol, or methanol) to hydrogen, or by using direct hydrogen that has been generated off-board and stored on the vehicle in compressed or liquid form.
Cars Operating on Natural Gas
Natural gas powers about 300,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 16 million vehicles worldwide. A natural gas vehicle (NGV) is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a cleaner alternative to other fossil fuels. Natural gas vehicles should not be confused with vehicles powered by propane (LPG), which is a fuel with a fundamentally different composition. Worldwide, there were 14.8 million natural gas vehicles by 2011, led by Iran with 2.86 million, Pakistan (2.85 million), Argentina (2.07 million), Brazil (1.70 million), and India (1.10 million), which figure has risen to almost 16 million vehicles today. The Asia-Pacific region leads the world with eight million NGVs, followed by Latin America with almost 5 million vehicles. In the Latin American region almost 90 percent of NGVs have bi-fuel engines, allowing these vehicles to run on either gasoline or CNG. In Pakistan, almost every vehicle converted to (or manufactured for) alternative fuel use typically retains the capability to run on ordinary gasoline.
As of 2009, the U.S. had a fleet of 114,270 compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, mostly buses; 147,030 vehicles running on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG); and 3,176 vehicles liquefied natural gas (LNG). Other countries where natural gas-powered buses are popular include India, Australia, Argentina, and Germany. In OECD countries there are around 500,000 CNG vehicles. Pakistan’s market share of NGVs was 61.1 percent in 2010, follow by Armenia with 32 percent, and Bolivia with 20 percent. The number of NGV refueling stations has also increased significantly.
In the U.S., natural gas is making inroads as a transportation fuel, particularly for truck fleets, buses and taxis. The consumer market is tougher to crack, but sales are gaining there as well. Natural gas is cheap and plentiful in the U.S. after a spike in production that began in the middle of last decade. At the same time, the price of gasoline and diesel fuel has jumped more than 40 percent. Ridership on the nation’s buses and trains has its one of its biggest quarterly jumps ever, as high gas prices and a rebounding economy entice commuters to mass transit.
Over 2.65 billion trips were made using trains, buses, ferries or street cars in the first quarter of 2012, according to the American Public Transportation Association. That’s up from 2.5 billion trips in the same period in 2011. The increase was one of the largest quarterly jumps on record, what with the 2011 ridership rate reaching the second highest since 1957 − when widespread use of the car and suburbanization began to turn many people away from mass transit. Of course, high gasoline prices defined the changeover at the start of 2012. Gas rose to nearly $4 a gallon − its highest level ever for that time of year − as an expanding economy and fears over Iran drove up the price of oil.
It’s a different story today. Gas prices are down to $3.61 a gallon, and will likely head lower in the coming weeks. Crude prices hit a 7-month low last week as the mess in Europe continued to spiral. Will people still opt for mass transit? Yes, say American Public Transportation Association experts. “Once people try transit, they tend to stay,” is the thumb rule, noting ridership rates didn’t fall nearly as much as gas prices did following the financial crisis of 2008.
People like the ability to read a book, check e-mail or just take a nap, while cleaner stations and vehicles and more predictable schedules help entice commutes back to public transit. Still, even with the large jump, America remains a nation of drivers. Just five percent of the population commutes using public transport, according to the Census Department (ibid).
Natural gas engines—which also emits fewer greenhouse gases — are an increasingly attractive option for truck companies and municipalities. But while natural gas may be a good choice for snow plows and trash trucks, which go relatively short distances and can refuel at city-owned pumps, it’s a tougher call for ordinary consumers. Natural gas cars cost more and there are few public places to refuel them. Those issues need to be addressed if the vehicles are to significantly boost their share of the auto market, which is currently less than one percent.
General Motors Co. and Chrysler Group recently added natural gas pickup trucks to their lineups. Honda Motor Co. is seeing more interest in its natural gas Civic and industry experts expect more offerings for regular buyers in the next year or two. Natural gas vehicles aren’t new. Ford’s previous peak sales, of 5,491, were in 2001. But they fell off the road when the price of natural gas spiked. Ford stopped selling natural gas vehicles in 2004 and didn’t start making them again until 2009.
During those five years, new technology unlocked vast reserves of natural gas in deep rock formations, creating a glut that has depressed prices. Compressed natural gas — or CNG — now costs between $1.79 to $3.49 per gallon in the U.S. depending on the location, compared with an average of $3.74 for gasoline and $4.12 for diesel, according to Clean Energy, which operates natural gas fueling stations, and AAA. It’s even cheaper for corporate or government buyers, who may pay as little as 80 cents per gallon for their natural gas, according to CNG Now, an industry lobbying group. In the U.S., CNG is sold in units that have the energy equivalent of a gallon of gasoline.
No one is quite sure how many natural gas vehicles are on the road. Honda and Chrysler are the only companies that make CNG-ready vehicles in their own factories. Ford and GM make vans and trucks that are prepped to run on CNG, or on a combination of gasoline and CNG, but rely on outside companies to add about $10,000 worth of equipment, including the natural gas tank. Some drivers convert their cars and trucks on their own.
GE, which is currently developing a home fueling station, estimates there are 250,000 natural gas vehicles currently in use in the U.S. Pike Research, a division of the consulting firm Navigant, expects CNG vehicle sales to grow by 10 percent per year through 2019, with sales of 40,000. In a market where 16 million new cars and trucks are sold each year, that’s still less than one percent. Steady demand is expected from governments and other fleet buyers and new offerings to meet those demands. For example, Ford released a CNG version of its Lincoln MKT crossover — which is sold to limousine companies — in 2014.
For general consumers, price is a problem. With a starting price of $26,305, a 2013 natural gas Civic costs $8,100 more than the base gas model. Big trucks that burn 20,000 to 40,000 gallons of gas a year can easily make up that difference, but it takes far longer for regular consumers, who may only use 500 gallons per year. Home fueling stations add $4,000 to $6,000 to that cost (ibid).
Range is also a concern. The U.S. has 1,100 natural gas fueling stations and only about half are open to the public. A natural gas Civic can go around 200 miles on a tank. That’s better than an electric car, which might go 100 miles on a charge. But it’s less than the 300 to 350 miles a driver can go on a tank of gas in a regular Civic.
All those things could change. GE is trying to develop a $500 home fueling station, and the federal government could encourage sales with tax credits, as it has done with its $7,500 electric vehicle credit. Some states are already giving tax credits to CNG vehicle buyers, including West Virginia — which gives up to $7,500 for smaller vehicles and $20,000 for trucks — and Colorado, which gives up to $6,000.
Ford’s fleet sustainability team thinks sales to individuals will one day outpace sales to fleets because natural gas is so plentiful and is piped into millions of homes. Sales will start mostly with corporate and government fleets, which appreciate the stability of natural gas prices compared with gasoline. Irving, Texas-based oil and gas company Pioneer Natural Resources recently ordered 250 F-250 pickups that can run on a combination of gas and natural gas. The company already has 50 bi-fuel vehicles, and wants to convert most of its fleet by 2015. The bi-fuel F-250 switches seamlessly between gas and natural gas and is easy to fill up. But more important, the company is paying $2 less per gallon than if it was only buying gasoline!
Should You Convert Your Car to Natural Gas?
A natural gas vehicle (NGV) is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a cleaner alternative to other fossil fuels. CNG and LNG are considered alternative fuels under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The horsepower, acceleration, and operating speeds of NGVs are similar to those of equivalent conventional vehicles. Furthermore, compared with conventional diesel and gasoline vehicles, NGVs produce major emissions benefits. Natural gas vehicles should not be confused with vehicles powered by propane (LPG), which is a fuel with a radically different composition. Existing gasoline-powered vehicles may be converted to run on CNG or LNG.
Gasoline is non-renewable and is a finite resource. Its prices are high, whereas natural gas is abundant and cheap—and likely to remain so. However, there are many technological and legal hurdles involved in converting a car to run on natural gas; it could cost thousands of dollars up front. So is it worth it? It’s the advanced countries that face this problem. In India, over 40 percent of urban small cars run on gas, LNG or LPG; in the hinterland, 95 percent. All three-wheel autorickshaws are green. Vehicles come off the assembly line as LNG capable and cost 12-15 percent more than similar models that run on petrol. Other small-car buyers convert their cars into LPG vehicles, requiring only a few ml of petrol to start. LNG conversion is also possible, though illegal. Use of LPG cylinders, meant for cooking, is also illegal. But it’s more of a case of: quis custodiet ipsos custodies?
Types of Natural Gas Vehicles
There are three types of NGVs:
- Dedicated: Vehicles designed to run only on natural gas.
- Bi-fuel: Vehicles with two separate fueling systems that enable them to run on either natural gas or gasoline.
- Dual-fuel: Vehicles traditionally limited to heavy-duty applications and have fuel systems that run on natural gas, and use diesel fuel for ignition assistance.
The form of natural gas used is typically chosen based on the range an application needs. The energy density of LNG is greater than CNG as it is a liquid, so more fuel can be stored onboard the vehicle. This makes LNG well-suited for Class 7 and 8 trucks requiring a greater range. CNG is ideal for taxis, especially radio-cabs. Enbridge Gas Distribution, Canada’s largest natural gas distributor champions the cause of natural gas vehicles (NGVs).
The company has invested almost $3.4 million to develop its NGV fleet, including the capital cost of about $5,000 per vehicle to adapt light duty vehicles and the extra $40,000 to purchase each factory-built medium-duty truck. It’s an investment that Enbridge experts say is paying off. In 2012, for example, the company’s NGVs delivered almost $1 million in financial savings by using natural gas instead of gasoline and diesel. Their management stresses the fact that natural gas burns more cleanly than gasoline or diesel, with 20 to 25 percent lower greenhouse gas emissions, reduced levels of air pollutants and creating much less noise in urban settings.
How Natural Gas Vehicles Work
Light-duty NGVs work much like gasoline-powered vehicles with spark-ignited engines. A CNG fuel system transfers high-pressure natural gas from the storage tank to the engine while reducing the pressure of the gas to the operating pressure of the engine’s fuel-management system. The natural gas is injected into the engine intake air stream exactly as gasoline is injected into a gasoline-fueled engine. The engine functions exactly like a gasoline engine: The fuel-air mixture is compressed and ignited by a spark plug and the expanding gases produce rotational forces that propel the vehicle.
Heavy-duty vehicles use not only spark-ignited natural gas systems but other systems as well. High-pressure direct injection engines burn natural gas in a compression-ignition (diesel) cycle, where a small amount of diesel fuel is injected in addition to the natural gas to facilitate ignition. Heavy-duty engines can also burn diesel and natural gas in a dual-fuel system.
Many heavy-duty vehicles use spark-ignited natural gas systems, but other systems exist as well. High-pressure direct injection engines burn natural gas in a compression-ignition (diesel) cycle, where a small amount of diesel fuel is injected in addition to the natural gas to facilitate ignition. Heavy-duty engines can also burn diesel and natural gas in a dual-fuel system (ibid).
If it is cheap and clean, and if it delivers a good return on investment, why aren’t we putting this stuff in most of our cars? There are very few technological barriers to overcome; converting existing vehicles to NGVs isn’t a challenge. The problem is legal. If you tried to do it yourself, you’d break the Clean Air Act’s rules against modifying fuel systems−a violation that could cost you up to $5000 in fines for every day you drive the converted vehicle. So if you want to green your wheels today, the only way to do it is by hiring a certified compressed-natural-gas (CNG) installer to do the job.
He will add a new fuel tank, tinker a bit with the fuel injectors and add a component or two. Perhaps you should read up about the various issues involved in converting. This video will make things a bit clear, even though it is a self-promoting commercial.
Alternative Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit
There’s good tidings for advocates of natural-gas vehicles. The Fuel-Tax Credit for natural gas has been extended, a credit or payment of $0.50 cents per gallon-equivalent on natural gas when used as a transportation fuel. Installation of natural-gas refueling equipment gets support too: a $1,000 credit for home refueling appliances, and a 30-percent investment tax credit up to $30,000 for businesses. This incentive originally expired on December 31, 2013, but was retroactively extended through December 31, 2014 by Public Law. The incentive will remain posted until the federal tax filing deadline.
The said law reads as follows:
“An alternative fuel blender that is registered with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) may be eligible for a tax incentive on the sale or use of the alternative fuel blend (mixture) for use as a fuel in the blender’s trade or business. The credit is in the amount of $0.50 per gallon of alternative fuel used to produce a mixture containing at least 0.1% gasoline, diesel, or kerosene. Qualified alternative fuels are: compressed natural gas (based on 121 cubic feet), liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, P-Series fuel, liquid fuel derived from coal through the Fischer-Tropsch process, and compressed or liquefied gas derived from biomass. The incentive must first be taken as a credit against the blender’s alternative fuel tax liability; any excess over this fuel tax liability may be claimed as a direct payment from the IRS. The tax credit is not allowed if an incentive for the same alternative fuel is also determined under the rules for the ethanol or biodiesel tax credits.” This tax credit is applicable to fuel sold or used between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2014.
The Diesel cycle is the combustion process of a reciprocating internal combustion engine. The diesel engine, also known as a compression-ignition engine, is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition and burn the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber. This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to gasoline), which use a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture. This is in contrast to igniting the fuel-air mixture with a spark plug as in the Otto cycle (four-stroke/ petrol) engine. Diesel engines are used in automobiles, power generation, diesel-electric locomotives, and submarines.
The diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency of any standard internal or external combustion engine due to its very high compression ratio and inherent lean burn which enables heat dissipation by the excess air. A small efficiency loss is also avoided compared to two-stroke non-direct-injection gasoline engines since unburned fuel is not present at valve overlap and therefore no fuel goes directly from the intake/injection to the exhaust.
Diesel engines have the lowest specific fuel consumption of any large internal combustion engine employing a single cycle, [0.26 lb/hp·h (0.16 kg/kWh)] for very large marine engines. Two-stroke diesels with high pressure forced induction, particularly turbocharging, make up a large percentage of the very largest diesel engines.
In North America, diesel engines are primarily used in large trucks, where the low-stress, high-efficiency cycle leads to much longer engine life and lower operational costs. These advantages also make the diesel engine ideal for use in the heavy-haul railroad environment. Diesel as a fuel is losing its place in the scheme of things due to pollution problems.
Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines:
- They burn less fuel than a petrol engine performing the same work, due to the engine’s higher temperature of combustion and greater expansion ratio. Gasoline engines are typically 30% efficient while diesel engines can convert over 45% of the fuel energy into mechanical energy.
- They have no high voltage electrical ignition system, resulting in high reliability and easy adaptation to damp environments. The absence of coils, spark plug wires, etc., also eliminates radio frequency emissions which can interfere with navigation and communication equipment, especially important in marine and aircraft applications, and for preventing interference with radio telescopes.
- The longevity of a diesel engine is generally about twice that of a petrol engine due to the increased strength of parts used. Diesel fuel has better lubrication properties than petrol as well. In unit injectors, the fuel is employed for three distinct purposes: injector lubrication, injector cooling and injection for combustion.
- Diesel fuel is distilled directly from petroleum. Distillation yields some gasoline, but the yield would be inadequate without catalytic reforming, which is a more expensive process.
- Diesel fuel is safer than petrol in many applications. Although diesel fuel will burn in open air using a wick, it will not explode and does not release a large amount of flammable vapor. The low vapor pressure of diesel is especially advantageous in marine applications, where the accumulation of explosive fuel-air mixtures is a particular hazard. For the same reason, diesel engines are immune to vapor lock.
- For any given partial load, the fuel efficiency (mass burned per energy produced) of a diesel engine remains nearly constant, as opposed to petrol and turbine engines which use proportionally more fuel with partial power outputs.
- They generate less waste heat in cooling and exhaust.
- Diesel engines can accept super- or turbo-charging pressure without any natural limit, constrained only by the strength of engine components. This is unlike petrol engines, which inevitably suffer detonation at higher pressure.
- The carbon monoxide content of the exhaust is minimal.
- Biodiesel is an easily synthesized, non-petroleum-based fuel which can run directly in many diesel engines, while gasoline engines either need adaptation to run synthetic fuels or else use them as an additive to gasoline (e.g., ethanol added to gasohol).
- The diesel engine is expensive, both in manufacturing (due to high work load) and also in maintenance. It is expensive due to ecological incompatibility of its exhaust and due to necessity to adjust its exhaust according to strict requirements of international agreements.
- The fuel in diesel engine is ignited by the heat of the compressed air. The fuel has had no time to fully mix with the air and it produces CO2, NO2 and carbon black during the combustion process. The carbon black is particularly visible when it colors the exhaust in black.
- The catalysts have more complex design due to irregular chemistry of the exhaust gases.
- Diesel fuel is of two kinds – summer fuel and winter fuel. They differ in the temperature of solidification. When the fuel freezes the fuel pump is unable to move it and that’s that. You are left stranded. This can be avoided by warming up the fuel piping (also fuel tank for trucks). Unlike diesel, petrol is non-freezing.
- The High Pressure Fuel Pump of a diesel engine is extremely unreliable. The ingress of water into the fuel is a serious hazard; a water separator is thus required. Small particles of dirt can damage the pump, therefore a filter after the filler is necessary. In Russia, two filters are required due to dirty diesel fuel. Such complexity of engine systems results in high prices on diesel engines –the price difference compared to petrol-powered engines goes up to €4000.
- Diesel engines are very noisy and prone to vibration. This is countered by wrapping up the engine compartment in acoustic insulation, balancing the engine moments and calibrating the control units.
The Mayors of both Paris and London want them banned by 2020.
A biofuel is a fuel that contains energy from geologically recent carbon fixation, such as plants, which are living organisms. Examples of this carbon fixation occur in plants and microalgae. These fuels are made by a biomass conversion. Biomass refers to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials, that die once uprooted.
Biomass can be converted to convenient energy containing substances in three different ways: by thermal, chemical and biochemical conversion, resulting in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. This new form of biomass can be used for biofuels, which are increasing in popularity because of rising oil prices and the need for energy security.
Biofuels are either Bioethanol or Biodiesel. High percentage bioethanol, which is usually sourced from sugar cane, sugarbeet or cereals, can be used in modified petrol engines or ‘Flex-Fuel Vehicles’ (FFVs). High percentage biodiesel, sourced from oil seed rape or waste oils, can be used in some standard diesel engines.
Bioethanol: Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, sugarcane, barley or sweet sorghum. The same fermented alcohol can be processed into whiskey or rum! Biomass derived from non-food sources such as trees and grasses is also being developed as a source for producing ethanol. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil. Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by fermentation.
Being a liquid at room temperature, bioethanol can be handled in a similar way to conventional petrol. Bioethanol can be used in spark-ignition engines with little or no modification as a low percentage alcohol-petrol blend (‘E10’ is 10 percent ethanol) or as pure alcohol fuel in modified vehicles.
A conventional spark-ignition engine vehicle is easily converted to run on pure bioethanol with some tinkering of ignition timing, and fitment of a larger fuel tank due to the fuel’s low energy density. Certain types of metals and some engine components may also need to be replaced. Pure bioethanol is difficult to vaporise at low temperatures, so it is usually blended with a small amount of petrol to improve ignition (E85 is a common high percentage blend). Several manufacturers now offer FFVs, which are able to run on any percentage of bioethanol blend up to E85.
Biodiesel: Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using esterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. A petrol driven car is NOT compatible with biodiesel.
The oils are first filtered to remove water and contaminants and are then mixed with an alcohol (usually methanol) and a catalyst. This breaks up the oil molecules before they are separated and purified. Low percentage biodiesel blends (B5) can be used in place of mineral diesel without any engine modification in many diesel engines (a ‘B5’ blend is 5 percent biodiesel mixed with 95 percent mineral diesel). While some diesel cars will also run on higher percentage biodiesel blends, their use can degrade rubber products (such as fuel pipes) and clog fuel injectors in certain conditions. To reduce the risk of these problems, users of ester-based biodiesels should ensure the fuel’s compliance with listed specs.
Use of biodiesel blends over 5 percent in the U.S. usually invalidates a vehicle’s warranty, so you should check with your vehicle manufacturer/supplier before using biodiesel at more than 5 percent concentration (ibid). There are similar rules in the EU as well.
In 2010, worldwide biofuel production reached 105 billion liters (28 billion gallons U.S.), up 17 percent from 2009 and biofuels provided 2.7 percent of the world’s fuels for road transport, a contribution largely made up of ethanol and biodiesel. Global ethanol fuel production reached 86 billion liters (23 billion gallons US) in 2010, with the United States and Brazil as the world’s top producers, accounting together for 90 percent of global production.
The world’s largest biodiesel producer is the European Union, accounting for 53 percent of all biodiesel production in 2010. The International Energy Agency has a goal for biofuels to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transport fuels by 2050 to reduce dependence on petroleum and coal. 79 percent of all cars produced in Brazil were made with a hybrid fuel system of bioethanol and gasoline.
Straight Vegetable Oils: Straight vegetable oil (SVO) is more viscous than mineral diesel and will freeze on cold days; you will not be able to start a car on vegetable oil. However, once the engine (or fuel) is warm everything will run better than it did on diesel. Therefore there are a few options to consider:
- Dual Fuel System: Start the car with diesel/biodiesel and then switch to SVO when everything is warmed up. Before turning off the engine, switch back to diesel so that the injectors and fuel lines contain diesel. The engine will start next time you use the car, and it will prevent fuel freezing in the fuel lines during cold weather.
- Mixed Fuel: SVO can be mixed with diesel in the main tank at different ratios depending on the weather conditions. The warmer the weather, the higher the percentage of vegetable oil that can be used.
Maintenance: An engine will usually run more smoothly on vegetable oil, and be better lubricated than with mineral diesel therefore lasting much longer. However, it is essential that you continue to maintain your engine properly.
FAQs On Biofuel Cars
How do I Refuel a Biofuel car?
Both biodiesel and bioethanol are liquid at room temperature, and so can be dispensed from fuel pumps in the same way as conventional liquid fuels. It is probable that you have driven on ethanol already, as it is routinely added to petrol (as a 5 percent blend) to improve octane ratings and as an oxygenate additive (to reduce carbon monoxide emissions).
Do Biofuel Vehicles Qualify for Tax Credits?
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, some alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) can qualify you for a tax credit of up to 50 percent off the vehicle’s incremental purchase cost. This credit could be available on tax years up to 2020. If this incremental cost can’t be determined or the AFV is sold, a credit up to $1,500 could also be available, as long as no credit had already been used on the vehicle. If you’re looking to buy an alternative fuel vehicle, it doesn’t hurt to ask if you qualify for tax incentives.
Does it Cost More to Insure Biofuel Cars?
Biofuel cars are powered differently than their gas counterparts, but insuring them is the same. Cars running on biofuels aren’t more susceptible to accidents, so things like your ZIP Code and your driving history will impact your insurance rate while the type of fuel your car uses. A survey showed that under the same circumstances, a biofuel version of a car generally doesn’t cost more to insure than the standard, gas-engine version — and in some cases it’s actually cheaper. For instance, the 2012 Ford Fusion SEL (an FFV) is almost four percent cheaper to insure than the similarly priced, gas-only Fusion Sport, and insurance for the clean diesel 2012 Volkswagen Jetta TDI is around 7.5 percent cheaper than the Jetta SEL(ibid).
Are Biofuel Cars Better for the Environment?
Biofuel promises to be ‘carbon-neutral’ with all CO2 emitted when using the fuel balanced by absorption from the atmosphere during the fuel crop’s growth. However, in practice, the process of growing the crop requires the input of fossil fuels for fertilisers, harvesting, processing and fuel distribution, with emissions associated with agriculture. Studies confirm that greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced by around 60 percent and 90 percent respectively. This means a 5percent biofuel blend would result in a carbon reduction of around 2.5 percent (biodiesel) and 4 percent (bioethanol). Its lower than mineral diesel sulfur content also increases efficiency of exhaust control systems, reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions.
What Are the Costs of Owning a Biofuel Car?
Car purchase costs are unaffected by using low percentage biofuel blends as no engine modifications are required. Standard petrol and diesel fuels often contain up to 5 percent biofuel as part of their specification. Use of biodiesel blends over 5 percent can invalidate a vehicle’s warranty, so you need to check with your vehicle manufacturer/supplier before using biofuels at more than 5 percent concentration.
While petrol cars can be modified to use high percentage bioethanol, which costs up to or just above a thousand dollars, most bioethanol cars are Flex-Fuel designed to operate on any percentage of bioethanol up to 85 percent (E85). Where available, these tend to be similarly priced to conventional (petrol) models.
Due to economies of scale, prices of biofuel blends tend to be higher than those of conventional mineral fuels, depending on the strength of the blend. Moreover, both biodiesel and bioethanol have lower energy content than petrol or diesel, so more fuel by volume is required per mile. The result is that using commercially produced high percentage biofuels can increase fuel costs per mile (ibid).
Where Can I Buy Biofuels and Biofuel Cars?
Ford, Volvo, Audi and Saab are the leading proponents of Flex-Fuel Vehicles –they offer several models that are able to run on any percentage of bioethanol blend up to E85 in the EU. In the U.S., biodiesel plus new technology diesel engines are expected to prove a winning combination.
The dramatic growth in availability of new technology diesel engines and vehicles for the U.S. market is welcome news for users who want the tremendous power, performance and fuel economy of a diesel engine, while minimizing their impact on the environments they operate in. This is because any diesel vehicle can also operate on clean, renewable biodiesel blends – America’s Advanced Biofuel. Biodiesel is the first and only commercial-scale fuel produced across the U.S. to meet the EPA’s specs for an Advanced Biofuel, i.e., the EPA has found that it reduces greenhouse gas emissions by more than 50 percent when compared with petroleum diesel.
Prominent models are from the Audi, Chrysler Ram, Ford, GM Chevy, GM GMC, Jeep, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz and other families of cars and SUVs/vans.
Compressed Air Car
A compressed air car is a vehicle that uses a motor powered by compressed air. The car can be powered solely by air, or combined with gasoline, diesel, ethanol, or an electric plant with regenerative braking. Compressed air is stored in a tank at high pressure (30 MPa, 4500 psi, 300 bar). Rather than driving engine pistons with an ignited fuel-air mixture, compressed air cars use the expansion of compressed air, in a manner similar to the expansion of steam in a steam engine. Compressed air is also used in torpedo propulsion.
Shrapnel-proof carbon-fiber tanks safely hold air at a pressure somewhere around 4500 psi, making them comparable to steel tanks. The cars are designed to be filled up at a high-pressure pump. Compressed air has relatively low energy density. Air at 30 MPa, weighing 372 g per liter, contains about 50 Watt hours of energy per liter (Wh/l). For comparison, a lead–acid battery contains 60-75 Wh/l. The EPA estimates that gasoline provides 33.7 kWh; however, a typical gasoline engine with 18 percent efficiency can only recover the equivalent of 1694 Wh/l. The energy density of a compressed air system can be more than doubled if the air is heated prior to expansion.
Compressed air cars are emission-free at the exhaust. Since a compressed air car’s source of energy is usually electricity, its total environmental impact depends on how clean the source of this electricity is.
Advantages: The main advantages of an air powered car are:
- It uses no gasoline or other bio-carbon based fuel.
- Refueling may be done at home, but is not advisable as filling the tanks to full pressure would require compressors for 250-300 bars, which are not normally available for home standard utilization, considering the danger inherent at these pressure levels. As with gasoline, service stations will eventually have the necessary air facilities. Those will use energy produced at large centralized powerplants, potentially making it less costly and more effective to manage emissions than from individual vehicles.
- If the idea of an air car catches on, air refueling stations will become available at ordinary gas stations, where the tank can be refilled much more rapidly with air that’s already been compressed. Filling your tank at the pump will probably take about three minutes.
- Compressed air engines reduce the cost of vehicle production, because there is no need to build a cooling system, spark plugs, starter motor, or mufflers.
- Air cars are designed to be lighter than conventional cars. The aluminum construction of these vehicles will keep their weight under 2,000 pounds (907 kilograms), which is essential to making these vehicles fuel efficient and will help them go faster for longer periods of time.
- The fuel will be remarkably cheap. It is estimated that the cars will get the equivalent of 106 miles (171 kilometers) per gallon, although compressed air will probably not be sold by the gallon. A more meaningful estimate is that it may take as little as $2 worth of electricity to fill the compressed air tank.
- The rate of self-discharge is very low vis-a-vis batteries that deplete their charge over time. The vehicle may thus be left unused for longer periods of time than electric cars (ibid).
- Expansion of the compressed air lowers its temperature; this may be exploited for use as air conditioning in large vehicles like buses.
- Reduction or elimination of hazardous chemicals such as gasoline or battery acids/metals.
Disadvantages: The main disadvantages are as listed below.
- The additional steps of energy conversion and transmission will each cause inherent loss.
- When air expands in the engine it cools dramatically and must be heated to ambient temperature using a heat exchanger.
- This also forces complete dehydration of the compressed air. If any humidity subsists in the compressed air, the engine will stop due to inner icing.
- It is significantly less efficient than a battery electric vehicle.
- Currently, the car is suited for short commutes only−distances less than 120 miles (192 km).
- The air cars’ lightweight construction might make it difficult for them to pass stringent American safety requirements and that this could hold up the arrival of air cars in the U.S. marketplace.
- Air cars may use low rolling resistance tires, which typically offer less grip than normal tires.
- The weight and price of safety systems such as airbags, ABS and ESC may discourage manufacturers from including them.
The TATA Airpod
In 2008, Tata Motors joined hands with a French company, Motor Development International (MDI), to manufacture and sell cars that run on nothing but compressed air. As per the deal, Tata Motors was to manufacture and sell (what was then called) OneCAT cars, after completing two phases of development.
In May 2012, the Indian automaker announced that phase 1 was successfully completed, which was ‘proof of technical concept’ towards mainstream production for sales in Indian market, after which they entered phase 2 – “completing detailed development of the compressed air engine into specific vehicle and stationary applications”.
Tata has now constructed a prototype of that vehicle powered by air, now called the Airpod. With a top speed of around 50 mph (80 kph), it can travel a distance of around 125 miles (200 km) before it needs to be ‘recharged’ or re-gassed. The three-seat Airpod by Tata has pretty much zero emissions, and costs just a dollar or so per 100 miles to run – unbelievably efficiency. Its tank holds around 175 liters of compressed air, that can be refilled at gas stations, or even at home. Tata Airpod has not revealed much more about the car, except that it will seat three adults and a baby, and will be driven by a joystick instead of a steering wheel.
The Airpod would cost under $10,000 to buy, and, with the super-cheap running costs, this could really be a world beater. In second half of 2015, Tata Motors is expected to debut ‘Airpod’, the finalized, production version of air car that has consumed so many years of research and development for absolutely clean mobility. Unveiling will be conducted in Hawaii, through US franchisee Zero Pollution Motors.
The Electric Car
An electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using electrical energy stored in batteries or another energy storage device. Electric motors give electric cars instant torque, creating strong and smooth acceleration.
Electric cars were popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century, until advances in ICEs and mass production of cheaper gasoline vehicles led to a steep decline in the use of electric cars. In the 21st century, a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing has occurred due to advances in batteries and power management, concerns about increasing oil prices, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Several national and local governments have established tax credits, subsidies, and other incentives to promote the introduction and adoption in the mass market of new electric vehicles depending on battery size and their all-electric range. The world’s top selling highway-capable electric car ever is the Nissan Leaf, released in December 2010 and sold in 35 countries, with global sales of over 158,000 units up until December 2014.
Comparison With ICE Vehicles
−Price: The up-front purchase price of electric cars is significantly higher than conventional ICE cars, even after considering government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles available in several countries. The primary reason is the high cost of car batteries, usually the most expensive component of BEVs, being about half the retail cost of the car.
According to a Nielsen survey in 2010, around three quarters of American and British car buyers have or would consider buying an electric car, but are put off by the higher price. 65 percent of Americans and 76 percent of Britons are not willing to pay more for an electric car than for a conventional car.
−Maintenance: Electric cars have expensive batteries that must be replaced if they become defective. The lifetime of the said batteries, however, can be very long (many years). Otherwise, electric cars incur very low maintenance costs, particularly in the case of current lithium-based designs.
−Running costs: The cost of charging the battery depends on the price paid per kWh of electricity – which varies with location. As of November 2012, a Nissan Leaf driving 500 mi (800 km) per week is estimated to cost US$ 600 per year in charging costs in Illinois, U.S., as compared to US$ 2,300 per year in fuel costs for an average new car using regular gasoline.
−Mileage costs: An electric vehicle has only around 5 moving parts in its motor, compared to a gasoline car that has hundreds of parts in its ICE. Mileage-related cost of an electric vehicle can be attributed to the maintenance of the battery pack, and its eventual replacement. An old battery can be traded in. The goal is a US$ 0.02 per mile by 2020.
−Total Cost of Ownership: At a 2010 purchase and operating costs for the US market with no government subsidies, a study estimated that a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is US$ 5,377 more expensive than a conventional ICE, while a battery electric vehicle is US$ 4,819 more expensive. But assuming that battery costs will decrease and gasoline prices increase over the next 10 to 20 years, the study found that BEVs will be significantly cheaper than conventional cars (US$ 1,155 to US$ 7,181 cheaper). A BHEV estimate was not made.
−Range and Recharging Time: Most cars with ICEs can be considered to have indefinite range, as they can be refueled very quickly. Electric cars often have less maximum range on one charge than cars powered by fossil fuels, and they can take considerable time to recharge. However, they can be charged at home overnight, which fossil fueled cars cannot. 71 percent of all car drivers in America drive less than 40 miles (64 km) per day. Nevertheless, people are affected by a worry known as range anxiety (fear that the batteries will run out before reaching their destination, due to the limited range of most existing electric cars).
−Air Pollution and Carbon Emissions: Electric cars contribute to cleaner air in cities because they produce no harmful pollution at the tailpipe from the onboard source of power, such as particulates (soot), volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. The clean air benefit is usually local because, depending on the source of the electricity used to recharge the batteries, air pollutant emissions are shifted to the location of the generation plants.
−Emissions during production: Studies have found that hybrid electric vehicles, PHEVs and all-electric cars generate more carbon emissions during their production than current conventional vehicles, but still have a lower overall carbon footprint over the full life cycle. The initial higher carbon footprint is due mainly to battery production.
−Transmission: A gearless or single gear design in some EVs obviates gear shifting, giving such vehicles both smoother acceleration and smoother braking. Electric vehicles have a high torque over a larger range of speeds during acceleration, as compared to an ICE. As there is no delay in developing torque in an EV, EV drivers report generally high satisfaction with acceleration.
−Energy efficiency: ICEs are relatively inefficient at converting on-board fuel energy to propulsion as most of the energy is wasted as heat, whereas electric motors are more efficient in converting stored energy into driving a vehicle. Electric drive vehicles do not consume energy while at rest or coasting, and some of the energy lost when braking is captured and reused through regenerative braking, which recovers as much as 20 percent of the energy normally lost during braking.
- Fire Hazard in PHEVs. Lithium-ion batteries may suffer thermal runaway and cell rupture if overheated or overcharged, and in extreme cases this can lead to combustion. Several plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents have taken place since the introduction of mass-production plug-in electric vehicles in 2008, most of them being lithium-ion battery pack related thermal runaways.
- Vehicle Safety. Great effort is taken to keep the mass of an electric vehicle as low as possible to improve its range and endurance. The weight and bulk of the batteries themselves usually makes an EV heavier than a comparable gasoline vehicle, reducing range and leading to longer braking distances. In a collision, the occupants of a heavy vehicle will, on the average, suffer fewer and less serious injuries than the occupants of a lighter vehicle; therefore, the additional weight brings safety benefits.
- Hazard to Pedestrians. At low speeds, electric cars produced less roadway noise as compared to vehicles propelled by internal combustion engines. Blind people or the visually impaired consider the noise of combustion engines a helpful aid while crossing streets, hence electric cars and hybrids could pose an unexpected hazard (ibid).
An electric vehicle battery (EVB) or traction battery can be either a primary (e.g. metal-air) or a secondary rechargeable battery used for propulsion of BEVs. Traction batteries are used in forklifts, electric Golf carts, riding floor scrubbers, full-size electric cars, trucks, and vans, etc. Some common types of commercial automotive batteries are:
- Lead-Acid: Lead-acid batteries are used in conventional cars and trucks for starting, ignition, lighting and other electrical functions.
- Nickel-Metal-Hydride: Nickel-Metal-Hydride (NiMH) batteries are commonly used in today’s hybrid vehicles. Their cost is moderate and they have an energy density about twice that of lead-acid batteries, although their power density is lower in terms of volume (space required). They also have a higher self discharge rate, and are thus better suited to hybrid applications than BEVs, which typically experience deep discharge cycles.
- Lithium-ion (Li-ion): Lithium-ion batteries are becoming the battery of choice for plug-in hybrids and BEVs, as well as some conventional hybrids. Their energy and power densities are both typically several times those of lead-acid and NiMH batteries, and their charge/discharge efficiency is also higher. Because of their high energy density, they are the preferred choice for many plug-in hybrids and BEVs either current or soon to be available.
- Lithium Polymer (Li-poly): The lithium polymer battery is similar to other lithium-ion batteries except it uses a solid plastic (polymer) electrolyte, which means its cell shape is not restricted to the cylindrical form of most others. Its shape can be altered to conform to specific spaces within a vehicle, thus making better use of space. It is similar to Li-ion batteries and are already being used in some hybrid vehicles.
- Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP): There are several variations of Lithium-ion batteries, depending on their internal chemistry – specifically the material used in the battery’s cathode, like cobalt and manganese oxides. The Lithium iron phosphate battery uses lithium-ion chemistry but with an iron phosphate cathode. Compared to other lithium-ion batteries, it offers superior heat and chemical stability, with no risk of fire in the event of overcharge or short circuit. It also typically has a higher peak-power rating, but its energy density is significantly lower than in other lithium-based batteries. Lithium iron phosphate batteries are now being used in hybrids and BEVs by some automakers.
Petrol engines have certain strength and weakness, as do electric motors. A hybrid system uniquely combines the best of both engines to create highly efficient vehicles. The most basic definition of a hybrid vehicle is one that uses two methods of providing power to the wheels. As a result, the ability of an electric motor to help share the load with a gasoline engine is the technology step that, on top of the first two, truly qualifies a vehicle as a hybrid.
When the car starts up, hybrid vehicles use only the electric motors, powered by the battery, while the gas/petrol engine remains shut off. A gas/petrol engine cannot produce high torque in the low rpm range, whereas electric motors can – delivering a very responsive and smooth start. The USA uses only petrol and BEVs, whereas the EU has diesel versions also, replacing petrol.
A gas/petrol engine is not energy efficient in running a car in the low-speed range, whereas electric motors are. Hybrid vehicles use the electric energy stored in its battery to run the car on the electric motors in low-speed range. Hybrid vehicles use the gas/petrol engine in the speed range in which it operates with good energy efficiency. The power produced by the gas/petrol engine is used to drive the wheels directly, and depending on the driving conditions, part of the power is distributed to the generator. Power produced by the generator is used to feed the electric motors, to supplement the gas/petrol engine. By making use of the engine/motor dual powertrain, the energy produced by the gas/petrol engine is transferred to the road surface with minimal loss.
Hybrid vehicles operate the gas/petrol engine in its high efficiency range, often producing more power than necessary to drive the car. In this case, the surplus power is converted to electric energy by the generator to be stored in the battery. When strong acceleration is called for (e.g., for climbing a steep slope or overtaking) the power from the battery is supplied to the electric motors to supplement driving power. By combining the power from the gas/petrol engine and the electric motors, hybrid vehicles deliver power comparable to cars having one class larger engine displacement. Alternatively, a smaller, more efficient engine can be used.
When braking or when the accelerator is lifted, hybrid vehicles use the kinetic energy of the car to let the wheels turn the electric motors, which function as regenerators. Energy that is normally lost as friction heat in deceleration is converted into electrical energy, which is recovered in the battery to be reused later. The gas/petrol engine, the electric motors and the generator are automatically shut down when the car comes to rest and restarted when the accelerator is pressed. No energy is wasted by idling.
Gasoline-fueled combustion engines overcome the limited driving range of some electric vehicle. As a result, hybrid technology lets you drive 500 miles or more, using relatively less fuel than traditional counterparts and without recharging. In fact, gasoline-fueled HEVs are among a select few vehicle technologies that can dramatically increase fuel economy, while reducing pollution and delivering top safety and performance.
Hybrids can basically be divided into three main types: full, mild hybrids, and PHEVs. Full hybrids are the most fuel efficient. They use all the technologies described above, and are the most thoroughly engineered solutions. Examples are the Toyota Prius, Honda Accord or Ford C-Max Hybrids. A mild hybrid has a battery and helper motor, but these operate while the gas engine is on, and never fully take over. They are not powerful enough to propel the car without the gas engine also doing some of the work. They may also make use of stop-start and regenerative braking but tend to have lower EPA-rated mpg. Examples of these would be General Motors eAssist and Honda’s Integrated Motor Assist (IMA).
As for PHEVs, most include all the technology of a full hybrid, but have an extra trick –larger batteries. These can be plugged into the grid and their increased supply of on-board electricity allows them to run in all-electric mode from a low of around six to 14 miles for the Toyota Prius PHEV, to 38 miles for the Chevy Volt.
- EPA issues a brochure providing information on current standards and how federal agencies work to enforce those laws, testing for national Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards, and what you can do to reduce your own vehicle emissions. It also explains how regulating and testing fuel economy plays an important role in deterring air pollution throughout the Unites States’ streets and communities.
- EPA is responsible for providing the fuel economy data that is used on the fuel economy label (or sticker) on all new cars and light trucks. EPA, in conjunction with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, updated the label in 2011 to incorporate new information required by law, such as new ratings on fuel economy, energy use, greenhouse gas, fuel costs, and other air pollutant emissions. The goal is to enable easy and well-informed comparisons across all vehicles and vehicle technologies, including electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and gasoline/diesel vehicles. They have uploaded a video to explain the importance of fuel economy and environmental pollution.
Alternative Fuels in Public Transit
As dissonance sets in with conventional fuels for short trips, acceptance of alternative fuels for a place in public awareness becomes most visible in public transportation. Simple logic, backed by math show that vehicles like buses and shuttles− meant to carry people in large numbers− stand to gain measurably and contribute handsomely to local economy by using alternative fuels. Because different alternative fuels are typically available in different regions, their localized use helps build local and regional economies, and reduces USA’s dependence on imported petroleum.
Such high-demand fuel users can help sustain a fueling infrastructure that supports private autos and other smaller vehicles. As public acceptance grows and more and more people gravitate to mass transit vehicles, corresponding infrastructure will have to grow accordingly. This infrastructure will be self-supporting, backed by the income from paying passengers. All that is required is to grow tentacles to support smaller vehicles like cars, vans, etc.
Public transit operations are best suited to alternative fuel use. Transit vehicles often travel on charted routes with centralized fueling and serviced by a team of technicians who can be trained consistently. They are part of fleets that travel many miles, so economies of scale can be favorable. As stated earlier, transit agencies typically operate in urban areas that may have air quality concerns. Alternative fuel transit vehicles offer substantial improvements in emissions, including visible soot, and often operate more quietly.
Large Trucks and Buses 2012
Breakdown of registered vehicles in the U.S. in 2012
- Total vehicles 253,639,386
- Single-Unit Trucks (straight trucks) 8,190,286
- Combination Trucks (tractor-trailers) 2,469,094
- Buses 764,509.
Buses are the most visible transit vehicles and account for 58 percent of the transit vehicle miles traveled, but transit agencies operate a variety of other vehicles that can also use alternative fuels. Many agencies operate vans or shuttles in “demand response” service. In addition, most agencies have fleets of support vehicles, like pickup trucks, vans, specialized maintenance vehicles, and, often, large numbers of police or security patrol cars. Using alternative fuels in these vehicles extends the benefits beyond the bus fleet. All major transit motor coach suppliers, as well as manufacturers of trucks, vans, and cars now offer alternative fuel options.
Alternative fuels can help solve some of the challenges faced by today’s transit agencies. Environmental and health issues provide powerful arguments to support alternative fuels. Buses powered by natural gas, for example, emit significantly less toxic fumes than those powered by diesel. Diesel exhaust contains more than 40 toxic chemicals, some of which are carcinogenic.
Public health officials suspect diesel exhaust is a possible contributor to the alarming rise in asthma and other respiratory ailments in urban areas. For many transit agencies who have moved to alternative fuels, air quality regulations provide one of the strongest incentives. The EPA has designated many urban areas as nonattainment for certain criteria pollutants. Some transit agencies have adopted alternative fuels to help meet the compliance standards.
Types of Alternative Fuel Used
Transit agencies around the country are increasing their use of alternative fuels. The American Public Transportation Association’s Earth Day release in 2014 reported that in 2013, more than 40 percent of transit buses used alternative fuels. Sixty-six percent of oil consumed in the United States came from foreign sources, up from 58 percent in 2000. Americans now spend $200,000 a minute on foreign oil and more than $25 billion annually goes to Persian Gulf states for oil imports. The criticality of self sufficiency could never be so obvious. Alternate fuels are the way ahead, as gap fillers for the present and primary sources in the future. To recap:
−Biodiesel: As seen, Biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from renewable resources. Biodiesel has no petroleum, but can be blended with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can be used in diesel engines with no major modifications. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic and free of sulfur.
Biodiesel can be used as a pure fuel or blended with petroleum in any percentage. B20 (a blend of 20 percent by volume biodiesel with 80 percent by volume petroleum diesel), B10, and B5 are commonly used today. In fact, is the only alternative fuel to have fully completed the health effects testing requirements under the Clean Air Act.
−Compressed Natural Gas (CNG): Compressed natural gas is a natural, clear, odorless, and non-corrosive gas which remains so even under pressure. Vehicles can use natural gas as either a liquid or a gas, but most vehicles use the gaseous form compressed to pressures above 3,100 psi. More than 99 percent of the natural gas used in the U.S. comes from domestic or other North American sources from three types of wells: natural gas, oil and coal bed methane wells. However, increasing demand for natural gas in power plants will require new supplies from non-North American countries, increasing dependence on foreign sources of energy. Authorities predict that by 2025, more than 15 percent of our natural gas supplies will be imported from countries other than Canada and Mexico.
CNG is used in a wide variety of commercial applications, from light-duty trucks and sedans like taxi cabs, to medium-duty trucks like UPS delivery vans and postal vehicles, to heavy-duty vehicles like transit buses, street sweepers and school buses. A home refueling appliance named “Phill” was released in California in 2005 by FuelMaker Corporation. Using this device, CNG vehicle owners refuel their vehicles overnight in their own home, from their household natural gas line.
−Liquefied Natural Gas: Liquefied natural gas, or LNG, is natural gas in a liquid form that is clear, colorless, odorless, non-corrosive, and non-toxic. LNG is produced when natural gas is cooled to -259° F (-162° C) by liquefaction. During this process, the natural gas, which is primarily methane, is cooled below its boiling point, so that certain concentrations of hydrocarbons, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and some sulfur compounds are either reduced or removed. LNG weighs less than half the weight of water and floats on it.
A majority of the world’s supply comes from countries with the largest natural gas reserves: Algeria, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Libya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Oman, Qatar, Trinidad and Tobago.
Because of LNG’s increased driving range, it is used in heavy-duty vehicles, typically vehicles that are classified as “Class 8” (33,000 – 80,000 pounds, gross vehicle weight). Typical transportation applications are refuse haulers, local delivery (grocery trucks), and transit buses.
−Liquefied Petroleum Gas: Motor Fuel Propane, or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), is produced as part of natural gas processing and crude oil refining. In natural gas processing, heavier hydrocarbons that naturally accompany natural gas such as LPG, butane, ethane, and pentane are removed prior to the natural gas entering the pipeline distribution system. In crude oil refining, LPG is the first product that results at the start of the refining process and is therefore always produced when crude oil is refined.
Propane gas can be liquefied at a moderate pressure, 160 psi, and stored in pressure tanks at about 200 psi at 100° F (37.8° C). When drawn from a tank, propane changes to a gas before it is burned in an engine. Propane has been used as a transportation fuel since 1912 and is the third most commonly used fuel in the U.S., behind gasoline and diesel. More than four million vehicles fueled by propane are in use around the world. It holds approximately 86 percent of the energy of gasoline and so requires more storage volume to drive a range equivalent to gasoline, but it is price-competitive on a cents-per-mile basis.
−Alternative Fuel Certified Retrofit Systems: Retrofit systems are after-market conversion kits that allow a gasoline or diesel-fueled engine to run on an alternative fuel, usually natural gas or propane. Most require a qualified automotive mechanic to install. Most systems require evaluation and certification by the Air Resources Board. The certification is generally obtained by the manufacturer of the retrofit system.
In April 2011, The United States Environmental Protection Agency streamlined its rules for alternative fuel converters using a 3-tier approach based on vehicle age/useful life. California’s requirements for alternative fuel converters are different from U.S. EPA’s requirements, so the latter State’s laws were modified for the 2004 Model year and later Light Duty (LD) vehicles/Heavy Duty (HD) engines. Small volume manufacturers were given some additional relief which sunsets after the 2017 model year.
−Hydrogen should not be considered a “fuel,” but as an energy transport mechanism. Most hydrogen is made from natural gas through a process known as reforming. Reforming separates hydrogen from hydrocarbons by adding heat. Hydrogen can also be produced from sources like water and biomass. Getting an internal combustion engine to run on hydrogen is not difficult. The challenge is getting an internal combustion engine to run well on hydrogen.
A fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electricity without any intermediate thermal or mechanical processes. The electrical energy can be used to do useful work directly, while the heat is either wasted or used for other purposes.
Fuel cells generate electricity from a catalyst-accelerated chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen ions in a cell. Several cells combined make up a fuel cell stack. Fuel cell systems have relatively few moving parts, and their only by products are water and heat when pure hydrogen is used as the fuel.
−Ethanol: Ethanol, or ethyl alcohol, is the same alcohol found in whiskey and rum and also makes an effective motor fuel. It has been around for decades as a motor fuel application experience in the U.S. and other countries. Most ethanol used for fuel is blended into gasoline at concentrations of 5 to 10 percent.
There is a small but growing market for E85 fuel (85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline) for use in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), several million of which have been produced by U.S. automakers. Ethanol is also used to formulate a blend with diesel fuel, known as “E-Diesel”. Though Ethanol has a lower energy content than gasoline, other ethanol fuel characteristics, including a high octane rating, result in increased engine efficiency and performance.
Hybrid taxi or hybrid electric taxi is a taxicab service provided with a hybrid electric car (HEV), which combines a conventional ICE propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. In 2000, North America’s first hybrid taxi was put into service in Vancouver, British Columbia, operating a 2001 Toyota Prius which traveled over 332,000 kilometres (206,000 mi) before being retired.
In 2009, the Taxicab, Limousine & Paratransit Association TLPA was against the proposal to make all taxicabs alternative fuel powered, stating, “As of July 2009, an alternative fuel vehicle adequate for taxicab service that meets consumer needs (i.e., adequate space for multiple passengers and their luggage; fleet operations durability and safety; a convenient fuel distribution system that allows unfettered passenger travel; and cost effectiveness) is not widely available and we are not certain when such a vehicle and fuel will be generally available.”
Safety of small vehicles: Most of the hybrid vehicles currently in production, led by the Toyota Prius, are much smaller than the ubiquitous Ford Crown Victoria raising concerns about the safety of passengers in accidents; and in Baltimore, Boston, New York City and other cities where safety partitions are required between the front and rear passenger compartments, the common injuries resulting from passengers legs, knees and faces hitting these partitions in very minor accidents (ibid).
Durability of smaller vehicles: The vehicle must have the ability to stand up to the wear and tear they face when being used as taxicab vehicles. While the average passenger vehicle travels fewer than 1,000 miles a month, the average commercial taxicab vehicle travels about 5,000 miles per month.
Accepting that technology would make such taxis viable in the future, TLPA added, “Financial and operational incentives and the transition of police departments to alternative fuel vehicles will speed the taxicab industry’s transition to alternative fuel vehicles.”Quoting President Obama’s new national vehicle standards, they demanded that automobile manufacturers develop alternative fuel vehicles designed for commercial passenger fleets. No such original equipment manufactured alternative fuel vehicle existed as of date. Moreover, a reliable fueling network and better refueling techniques (speed, safety, and ease) were needed.
These demands are likely to be met soon and the ubiquitous urban taxicab will change over to alternative fuels in the near future across the USA. Hybrid vehicles, with adequate batteries available in greater numbers, will lead to greater availability of a variety of hybrid sedans at a lower cost.
|Year||Car Model||Make||Fuel Type||Type||Price||Doors||MPG||Type of Fuel|
|Concept||Audi A3 TDI Clubsport quattro||Audi||Diesel||3-Door Hatchback||2||N/A||N/A|
|Concept||Audi R8 TDI Le Mans||Audi||Diesel||Coupe||2||N/A||N/A|
|Concept||Audi R8 V12 TDI Concept||Audi||Diesel||Coupe||2||N/A||N/A|
|Concept||Volkswagen BlueSport TDI||Volkswagen||Diesel||Convertible||2||N/A||N/A|
|Concept||Audi e-tron||Audi||Electric Car||Coupe||2||N/A||N/A|
|Concept||Mahindra REVA NXG||Mahindra||Electric Car||Convertible||2||N/A||N/A|
|Concept||Rolls-Royce Phantom 120EX||Rolls-Royce||Electric Car||Sedan||4||N/A||N/A|
|Concept||Honda FC Sport||Honda||Fuel Cell||Coupe||2||N/A||N/A|
|Concept||Audi Q7 hybrid concept||Audi||Hybrid||SUV||4||N/A||N/A|
|Concept||Fisker Karma S Convertible||Fisker||Plug-In Hybrid||Convertible||2||N/A||N/A|
|2014||2014 Chevrolet Spark||Chevrolet||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$12,170||4||31/39/34||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Chevrolet Sonic Sedan||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$14,170||4||29/40/33||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Chevrolet Sonic Hatchback||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$14,770||4||29/40/33||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Ford Fiesta||Ford||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$14,895||4||29/39/32||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Ford Fiesta||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$15,390||4||29/39/32||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Dodge Dart||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$15,995||4||17/24/19||E85 Ethanol|
|2014||2014 Dodge Dart||Dodge||High MPG||Sedan||$15,995||4||25/36/29||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Ford Fiesta SFE||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$16,935||4||30/41/34||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Ford Fiesta SFE||Ford||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$17,535||4||30/41/34||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Ford Focus||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$17,700||4||26/37/30||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Chevrolet Cruze||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$17,995||4||26/38/30||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Chevrolet Spark EV||Chevrolet||Electric Car||5-Door Hatchback||$19,185||4||N/A||N/A|
|2014||2014 Ford Focus SFE||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$19,510||4||28/40/33||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Chevrolet Cruze Eco||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$19,835||4||28/42/33||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Dodge Avenger||Dodge||High MPG||Sedan||$19,895||4||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Dodge Dart Aero||Dodge||High MPG||Sedan||$19,995||4||28/41/32||Premium|
|2014||2014 Ford Focus||Ford||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$20,015||4||26/37/30||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Chrysler 200||Chrysler||High MPG||Sedan||$21,195||4||20/31/24||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Ford Fusion||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$21,945||4||22/34/26||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Dodge Journey||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$23,285||4||12/18/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2014||2014 Chrysler 200||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$23,360||4||14/21/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2014||2014 Chevrolet Camaro||Chevrolet||High MPG||Coupe||$23,455||2||19/30/22||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Chevrolet Impala||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$24,390||4||14/20/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2014||2014 Chevrolet Impala||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$24,390||4||21/31/25||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Chevrolet Cruze Diesel||Chevrolet||Diesel||Sedan||$25,695||4||27/46/33||Diesel|
|2014||2014 Dodge Grand Caravan||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Minivan||$26,695||4||12/18/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2014||2014 Ford Fusion Hybrid||Ford||Hybrid||Sedan||$26,995||4||47/47/47||Gas+Battery|
|2014||2014 Acura ILX Hybrid||Acura||Hybrid||Sedan||$28,900||4||39/38/38||Premium|
|2014||2014 Chrysler 200 Convertible||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Convertible||$29,490||2||14/21/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2014||2014 Ford E-150 Wagon||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||Van||$29,730||3||9/12/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2014||2014 Chrysler 300||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$30,545||4||14/23/17||E85 Ethanol|
|2014||2014 Chrysler Town and Country||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Minivan||$30,765||4||12/18/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2014||2014 Chevrolet Camaro Convertible||Chevrolet||High MPG||Coupe||$30,955||2||19/30/22||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Dodge Charger||Dodge||High MPG||Coupe||$31,295||2||19/31/23||Gasoline|
|2014||2014 Dodge Charger||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Coupe||$31,795||2||13/19/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2014||2014 Dodge Durango||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$32,195||4||13/18/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2014||2014 Chevrolet Volt||Chevrolet||Plug-In Hybrid||Sedan||$34,185||4||35/40/37||Battery+Premium|
|2014||2014 Ford Focus Electric||Ford||Electric Car||5-Door Hatchback||$35,200||4||N/A||N/A|
|2014||2014 Ford Fusion Energi||Ford||Plug-In Hybrid||Sedan||$35,488||4||44/41/43||Gas+Battery|
|2014||2014 BMW i3||BMW||Electric Car||Coupe||$41,350||2||N/A||N/A|
|2014||2014 BMW i3 with Range Extender||BMW||Electric Car||Coupe||$45,200||2||N/A||N/A|
|2014||2014 Porsche 918 Spyder||Porsche||Plug-In Hybrid||Convertible||$845,000||2||N/A||N/A|
|2014||2014 BMW i8||BMW||Plug-In Hybrid||Coupe||2||N/A||N/A|
|2013||2013 Chevrolet Spark||Chevrolet||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$12,085||4||32/38/34||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Ford Fiesta||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$13,840||4||29/39/33||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Chevrolet Sonic Sedan||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$14,185||4||29/40/33||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Chevrolet Sonic Hatchback||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$14,785||4||29/40/33||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Ford Fiesta||Ford||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$14,840||4||29/39/33||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Ford Fiesta SFE||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$15,935||4||29/39/33||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Dodge Dart||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$15,995||4||17/24/19||E85 Ethanol|
|2013||2013 Dodge Dart||Dodge||High MPG||Sedan||$15,995||4||25/36/29||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Ford Focus||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$16,590||4||27/38/31||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Ford Fiesta SFE||Ford||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$16,935||4||29/39/33||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Chevrolet Cruze||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$17,940||4||26/38/30||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Ford Focus SFE||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$18,100||4||28/40/33||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Toyota Prius c||Toyota||Hybrid||5-Door Hatchback||$19,080||4||53/46/50||Gas+Battery|
|2013||2013 Ford Focus||Ford||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$19,100||4||27/38/31||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Dodge Dart Aero||Dodge||High MPG||Sedan||$19,295||4||28/41/32||Premium|
|2013||2013 Chevrolet Cruze Eco||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$19,680||4||28/42/33||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Chrysler 200||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$19,695||4||14/21/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2013||2013 Chrysler 200||Chrysler||High MPG||Sedan||$19,695||4||20/31/23||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Dodge Avenger||Dodge||High MPG||Sedan||$19,795||4||20/31/23||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Ford Fusion||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$21,195||4||22/34/26||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Dodge Journey||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$23,295||4||12/18/2015||E85 Ethanol|
|2013||2013 Chevrolet Camaro||Chevrolet||High MPG||Coupe||$23,345||2||19/30/22||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Toyota Prius||Toyota||Hybrid||Sedan||$24,200||4||51/48/50||Gas+Battery|
|2013||2013 Ford C-MAX||Ford||Hybrid||5-Door Hatchback||$24,640||4||45/40/43||Gas+Battery|
|2013||2013 Volkswagen Beetle||Volkswagen||Diesel||Convertible||$24,995||2||28/41/32||Diesel|
|2013||2013 Chevrolet Impala||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$25,860||4||13/22/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2013||2013 Toyota Prius v||Toyota||Hybrid||5-Door Hatchback||$26,650||4||44/42/40||Gas+Battery|
|2013||2013 Dodge Grand Caravan||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Minivan||$26,695||4||12/18/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2013||2013 Ford Fusion Hybrid||Ford||Hybrid||Sedan||$26,995||4||47/47/47||Gas+Battery|
|2013||2013 Ford C-MAX Energi||Ford||Plug-In Hybrid||5-Door Hatchback||$27,745||4||44/41/43||Gas+Battery|
|2013||2013 Chrysler 200 Convertible||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Convertible||$28,890||2||14/21/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2013||2013 Chrysler Town and Country||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Minivan||$29,125||4||12/18/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2013||2013 Ford E-150 Wagon||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||Van||$29,455||3||9/11/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2013||2013 Chrysler 300||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$30,345||4||14/23/17||E85 Ethanol|
|2013||2013 Chevrolet Camaro Convertible||Chevrolet||High MPG||Coupe||$30,660||2||19/30/22||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Dodge Charger||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Coupe||$31,295||2||13/19/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2013||2013 Dodge Charger||Dodge||High MPG||Coupe||$31,295||2||19/31/23||Gasoline|
|2013||2013 Toyota Prius Plug-in||Toyota||Plug-In Hybrid||Sedan||$32,000||4||51/49/50||Gas+Battery|
|2013||2013 Dodge Durango||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$32,145||4||12/17/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2013||2013 Ford Fusion Energi||Ford||Plug-In Hybrid||Sedan||$32,745||4||44/41/43||Gas+Battery|
|2013||2013 Chevrolet Volt||Chevrolet||Plug-In Hybrid||Sedan||$39,145||4||35/40/37||Battery+Premium|
|2013||2013 Ford Focus Electric||Ford||Electric Car||5-Door Hatchback||$39,200||4||N/A||N/A|
|2013||2013 BMW ActiveHybrid 3||BMW||Hybrid||Sedan||$49,650||4||25/33/28||Premium|
|2013||2013 BMW ActiveHybrid 5||BMW||Hybrid||Sedan||$61,400||4||23/30/26||Premium|
|2013||2013 BMW ActiveHybrid 7||BMW||Hybrid||Sedan||$84,300||4||22/30/25||Premium|
|2013||Audi A8 hybrid||Audi||Hybrid||Sedan||4||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 Nissan Versa Sedan||Nissan||High MPG||Sedan||$10,990||4||/38/||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 Hyundai Accent||Hyundai||High MPG||Sedan||$12,445||4||30/40/34||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 Chevrolet Sonic Sedan||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$13,865||4||29/40/33||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 Hyundai Accent||Hyundai||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$14,595||2||30/40/34||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 Chevrolet Sonic Hatchback||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$14,765||4||40/29/33||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 FIAT 500||Fiat||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$15,500||2||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 Honda Civic Coupe||Honda||High MPG||Coupe||$15,605||2||28/39/32||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 Honda Civic Sedan||Honda||High MPG||Sedan||$15,805||4||28/39/32||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 Ford Focus||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$16,270||4||28/38/||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 Ford Focus||Ford||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$18,065||4||28/38/||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 Ford Focus SFE||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$18,860||4||28/40/||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 Volkswagen Beetle||Volkswagen||High MPG||Coupe||$18,995||2||22/30/25||Premium|
|2012||2012 Honda Civic HF||Honda||High MPG||Sedan||$19,455||4||29/41/33||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 FIAT 500c||Fiat||High MPG||Convertible||$19,500||2||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 Volkswagen Passat||Volkswagen||High MPG||Sedan||$19,995||4||21/32/||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 Kia Sorento||Kia||High MPG||SUV||$21,195||4||22/32/25||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 Ford Mustang||Ford||High MPG||Coupe||$22,145||2||19/31/23||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 Honda Civic Hybrid||Honda||Hybrid||Sedan||$24,050||4||44/44/44||Gas+Battery|
|2012||2012 FIAT 500 by Gucci||Fiat||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$24,800||2||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 Volkswagen Passat||Volkswagen||Diesel||Sedan||$25,995||4||31/43/35||Diesel|
|2012||2012 Ford Mustang Convertible||Ford||High MPG||Convertible||$27,145||2||19/31/||Gasoline|
|2012||2012 Mitsubishi i MiEV||Mitsubishi||Electric Car||5-Door Hatchback||$27,990||4||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 Chrysler 200 Convertible||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Convertible||$28,750||2||14/21/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2012||2012 Chevrolet Volt||Chevrolet||Plug-In Hybrid||Sedan||$39,145||4||35/40/37||Battery+Premium|
|2012||2012 Infiniti M Hybrid||Infiniti||Hybrid||Sedan||$53,700||4||27/32/||Gas+Battery|
|2012||2012 Tesla Motors Model S||Tesla||Electric Car||Sedan||$57,400||4||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 Fisker Karma||Fisker||Plug-In Hybrid||Sedan||$96,850||4||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 FIAT 500C by Diesel||Fiat||Diesel||Convertible||2||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 Volkswagen Beetle TDI||Volkswagen||Diesel||Coupe||2||/40/||Diesel|
|2012||2012 Honda Fit EV||Honda||Electric Car||5-Door Hatchback||4||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 BMW ActiveE||BMW||Electric Car||Coupe||2||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 Ford Focus Electric||Ford||Electric Car||Sedan||4||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 smart fortwo electric drive||Smart||Electric Car||Coupe||2||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 Chevrolet Spark||Chevrolet||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||4||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 Scion iQ||Scion||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||2||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 Volkswagen Beetle Convertible||Volkswagen||High MPG||Convertible||2||N/A||N/A|
|2012||2012 Toyota Prius Plug-in||Toyota||Plug-In Hybrid||Sedan||4||//50||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Hyundai Accent||Hyundai||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$9,985||2||26/36/30||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 smart fortwo coupe||Smart||High MPG||Coupe||$10,990||2||33/41/36||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Aveo Sedan||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$11,965||4||27/35/30||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Aveo5||Chevrolet||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$12,115||4||27/35/30||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Kia Rio||Kia||High MPG||Sedan||$12,295||4||27/36/30||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Toyota Yaris||Toyota||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$13,155||2||29/36/32||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Kia Soul||Kia||High MPG||Station Wagon||$13,300||4||26/31/28||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Ford Fiesta||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$13,320||4||29/38/33||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Toyota Yaris||Toyota||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$13,455||4||29/36/32||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Hyundai Accent||Hyundai||High MPG||Sedan||$13,695||4||27/36/30||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Toyota Yaris||Toyota||High MPG||Sedan||$13,715||4||29/36/32||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Mazda Mazda2||Mazda||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$14,180||4||29/35/32||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Nissan Versa||Nissan||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$14,380||4||28/34/30||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Nissan Cube||Nissan||High MPG||Station Wagon||$14,740||4||27/31/28||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Hyundai Elantra||Hyundai||High MPG||Sedan||$14,945||4||29/40/33||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Kia Forte||Kia||High MPG||Sedan||$14,995||4||26/36/29||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Kia Rio5||Kia||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$15,095||4||27/35/||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Honda Fit||Honda||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$15,100||4||28/35/31||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Mitsubishi Lancer||Mitsubishi||High MPG||Sedan||$15,195||4||25/33/28||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Ford Fiesta||Ford||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$15,520||4||29/38/33||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Honda Civic Coupe||Honda||High MPG||Coupe||$15,605||2||25/36/29||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Scion xD||Scion||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$15,765||4||27/33/29||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Mazda Mazda3 4-Door||Mazda||High MPG||Sedan||$15,800||4||25/33/28||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Honda Civic Sedan||Honda||High MPG||Sedan||$15,805||4||25/36/29||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Toyota Corolla||Toyota||High MPG||Sedan||$15,900||4||28/35/31||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Hyundai Elantra Touring||Hyundai||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$15,995||4||23/31/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Nissan Sentra||Nissan||High MPG||Sedan||$16,060||4||27/34/30||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Ford Fiesta SFE||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$16,310||4||29/40/33||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Suzuki SX4 Sport||Suzuki||High MPG||Sedan||$16,479||4||23/33/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen Jetta||Volkswagen||High MPG||Sedan||$16,495||4||24/34/28||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Cruze||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$16,525||4||26/36/30||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Suzuki SX4 SportBack||Suzuki||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$16,599||4||23/30/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Ford Focus||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$16,640||4||25/35/29||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Dodge Caliber||Dodge||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$16,880||4||24/32/27||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Kia Forte 5-door||Kia||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$16,895||4||26/36/29||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Kia Forte Koup||Kia||High MPG||Coupe||$16,995||2||25/34/29||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Mitsubishi Lancer Sportback||Mitsubishi||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$16,995||4||25/32/27||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Suzuki SX4 Crossover||Suzuki||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$16,999||4||22/30/25||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Ford Fiesta SFE||Ford||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$17,010||4||29/40/33||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 smart fortwo cabriolet||Smart||High MPG||Convertible||$17,690||2||33/41/36||Premium|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen Golf 2-Door||Volkswagen||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$17,995||2||23/33/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Honda Insight||Honda||Hybrid||Sedan||$18,200||4||40/43/41||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Kia Sportage||Kia||High MPG||SUV||$18,295||4||22/31/25||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Mitsubishi Outlander Sport||Mitsubishi||High MPG||SUV||$18,495||4||25/31/27||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet HHR||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$18,720||4||16/23/19||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet HHR||Chevrolet||High MPG||SUV||$18,720||4||22/32/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Hyundai Tuscon||Hyundai||High MPG||SUV||$18,995||4||23/31/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Kia Optima||Kia||High MPG||Sedan||$18,995||4||24/35/28||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Scion tC||Scion||High MPG||Coupe||$18,995||2||23/31/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Suzuki Kizashi||Suzuki||High MPG||Sedan||$18,999||4||23/31/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Cruze Eco||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$19,175||4||28/42/33||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Chrysler 200||Chrysler||High MPG||Sedan||$19,245||4||20/31/24||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Dodge Avenger||Dodge||High MPG||Sedan||$19,245||4||20/31/24||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Honda CR-Z||Honda||Hybrid||Coupe||$19,345||2||35/39/37||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Hyundai Sonata||Hyundai||High MPG||Sedan||$19,395||4||24/35/28||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Nissan Juke||Nissan||High MPG||SUV||$19,570||4||27/32/29||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen Golf 4-Door||Volkswagen||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$19,755||4||23/33/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Ford Fusion||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$19,820||4||23/33/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Mazda Mazda6||Mazda||High MPG||Sedan||$19,990||4||22/31/25||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Subaru Legacy||Subaru||High MPG||Sedan||$19,995||4||23/31/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen Jetta SportWagen||Volkswagen||High MPG||Station Wagon||$19,995||4||23/33/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 MINI Cooper Hardtop||MINI||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$20,100||2||29/37/32||Premium|
|2011||2011 Toyota Camry||Toyota||High MPG||Sedan||$20,195||4||22/33/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Nissan Altima||Nissan||High MPG||Sedan||$20,270||4||23/32/27||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Honda Accord Sedan||Honda||High MPG||Sedan||$21,180||4||23/34/27||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Mitsubishi Galant||Mitsubishi||High MPG||Sedan||$21,599||4||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 MINI Cooper Clubman||MINI||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$21,800||2||27/36/30||Premium|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Malibu||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$21,975||4||15/23/18||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Malibu||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$21,975||4||22/33/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Mercury Milan||Mercury||High MPG||Sedan||$22,025||4||23/33/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Ford Mustang||Ford||High MPG||Coupe||$22,145||2||19/31/23||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Dodge Journey||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$22,245||4||13/18/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Hyundai Genesis Coupe||Hyundai||High MPG||Coupe||$22,250||2||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 MINI Cooper Countryman||MINI||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$22,350||4||28/35/31||Premium|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Camaro||Chevrolet||High MPG||Coupe||$22,680||2||19/30/22||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Chrysler 200||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$22,745||4||14/21/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Honda Accord Coupe||Honda||High MPG||Coupe||$22,780||2||22/33/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen Jetta TDI||Volkswagen||Diesel||Sedan||$22,995||4||30/42/34||Diesel|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Equinox||Chevrolet||High MPG||SUV||$22,995||4||22/32/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen Golf TDI 2-Door||Volkswagen||Diesel||3-Door Hatchback||$23,225||2||30/42/34||Diesel|
|2011||2011 Nissan Altima Coupe||Nissan||High MPG||Coupe||$23,380||2||23/32/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Toyota Prius||Toyota||Hybrid||Sedan||$23,520||4||51/48/50||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen GTI 2-Door||Volkswagen||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$23,695||4||24/33/27||Premium|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen Golf TDI 4-Door||Volkswagen||Diesel||5-Door Hatchback||$23,885||4||30/42/34||Diesel|
|2011||2011 Honda Civic Hybrid||Honda||Hybrid||Sedan||$23,950||4||40/43/41||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Dodge Grand Caravan||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Minivan||$23,995||4||12/18/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Ford Fusion||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$24,170||4||14/21/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen GTI 4-Door||Volkswagen||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$24,295||4||24/33/27||Premium|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Impala||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$24,390||4||14/22/17||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 GMC Terrain||GMC||High MPG||SUV||$24,500||4||22/32/26||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Dodge Challenger||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Coupe||$24,670||2||13/19/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Volvo C30||Volvo||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$24,700||2||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Ram 1500||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$24,915||4||9/13/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen Jetta SportWagen TDI||Volkswagen||Diesel||Station Wagon||$24,995||4||30/42/34||Diesel|
|2011||2011 Mercury Milan||Mercury||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$25,165||4||14/21/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Dodge Charger||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Coupe||$25,170||2||13/19/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Dodge Avenger||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$25,340||4||14/21/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Honda Civic GX NGV||Honda||CNG||Sedan||$25,490||4||24/36/28||Natural Gas|
|2011||2011 MINI Cooper Convertible||MINI||High MPG||Convertible||$25,550||2||27/36/30||Premium|
|2011||2011 Ford Escape||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$25,610||4||14/19/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Mercury Mariner||Mercury||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$25,635||4||14/19/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid||Hyundai||Hybrid||Sedan||$25,795||4||35/40/37||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Equinox||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$26,055||4||12/18/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Buick Regal||Buick||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$26,245||4||15/22/17||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Buick Regal||Buick||High MPG||Sedan||$26,245||4||20/32/24||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 GMC Terrain||GMC||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$26,300||4||12/18/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Ford F-150||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$26,615||2||12/17/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Ram Dakota||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$26,680||4||9/13/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Nissan Altima Hybrid||Nissan||Hybrid||Sedan||$26,800||4||33/33/33||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen Routan||Volkswagen||E85 Flex-Fuel||Minivan||$26,930||4||12/18/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Buick LaCrosse||Buick||High MPG||Sedan||$26,995||4||19/30/23||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Toyota Camry Hybrid||Toyota||Hybrid||Sedan||$27,050||4||31/35/33||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Ford Mustang Convertible||Ford||High MPG||Convertible||$27,145||2||19/30/23||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Chrysler 300||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$27,170||4||13/19/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Audi A3||Audi||High MPG||Station Wagon||$27,270||4||21/30/24||Premium|
|2011||2011 Mazda Tribute||Mazda||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$27,315||4||14/19/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Nissan Titan||Nissan||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$27,410||4||9/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Volvo S40||Volvo||High MPG||Sedan||$27,750||4||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Ford E-150 Wagon||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||Van||$28,185||3||9/12/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Chrysler 200 Convertible||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Convertible||$28,240||2||14/21/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Mercury Milan Hybrid||Mercury||Hybrid||Sedan||$28,345||4||41/36/39||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Ford Fusion Hybrid||Ford||Hybrid||Sedan||$28,405||4||41/36/39||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen CC||Volkswagen||High MPG||Sedan||$28,515||4||21/31/25||Premium|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Express||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Van||$28,710||3||10/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 GMC Savana||GMC||E85 Flex-Fuel||Van||$28,835||3||10/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Saab 9-3 Sport Sedan||Saab||High MPG||Sedan||$28,900||4||21/31/24||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Volvo V50||Volvo||High MPG||Station Wagon||$29,000||4||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Lexus CT 200h||Lexus||Hybrid||5-Door Hatchback||$29,120||4||43/40/42||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Dodge Durango||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$29,195||4||12/17/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Acura TSX||Acura||High MPG||Sedan||$29,610||4||N/A||N/A|
|2011||2011 Buick Lucerne||Buick||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$29,730||4||13/20/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Mercury Grand Marquis||Mercury||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$29,935||4||12/17/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Ford Escape Hybrid||Ford||Hybrid||SUV||$30,110||4||34/31/32||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Mercury Mariner Hybrid||Mercury||Hybrid||SUV||$30,115||4||34/31/32||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Chrysler Town and Country||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Minivan||$30,160||4||12/18/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Jeep Grand Cherokee||Jeep||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$30,215||4||13/17/14||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Audi A3 TDI||Audi||Diesel||Station Wagon||$30,250||4||30/42/34||Diesel|
|2011||2011 Saab 9-3 Sport Combi||Saab||High MPG||Station Wagon||$30,330||4||21/31/24||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Acura TSX Sport Wagon||Acura||High MPG||Station Wagon||$30,960||4||N/A||N/A|
|2011||2011 Toyota Tundra||Toyota||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$31,215||4||10/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Audi A4||Audi||High MPG||Sedan||$32,300||4||23/30/25||Premium|
|2011||2011 GMC Sierra 1500||GMC||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$32,475||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Nissan Leaf||Nissan||Electric Car||5-Door Hatchback||$32,780||4||N/A||N/A|
|2011||2011 Audi A4 quattro||Audi||High MPG||Sedan||$33,300||4||21/31/25||Premium|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Silverado XFE||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$33,610||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Mercedes-Benz C300||Mercedes||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$33,990||4||13/19/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen Eos||Volkswagen||High MPG||Convertible||$33,995||2||21/31/25||Premium|
|2011||2011 Lexus IS 250||Lexus||High MPG||Sedan||$34,465||4||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Lincoln MKZ Hybrid||Lincoln||Hybrid||Sedan||$34,645||4||41/36/39||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Avalanche||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$36,110||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Lexus HS 250h||Lexus||Hybrid||Sedan||$36,330||4||35/34/35||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Audi A5||Audi||High MPG||Coupe||$36,900||2||21/31/25||Premium|
|2011||2011 Ford Expedition||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$37,070||4||10/15/2012||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Tahoe||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$37,980||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Toyota Highlander Hybrid||Toyota||Hybrid||SUV||$38,140||4||28/28/28||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Audi A5 quattro||Audi||High MPG||Coupe||$38,200||2||21/31/25||Premium|
|2011||2011 Audi TT Coupe quattro||Audi||High MPG||Coupe||$38,300||2||22/31/26||Premium|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid||Chevrolet||Hybrid||Pickup||$38,340||4||20/23/21||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Nissan Armada||Nissan||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$38,490||4||9/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Saab 9-5 Sedan||Saab||High MPG||Sedan||$38,525||4||20/33/25||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Ram 2500||Dodge||Diesel||Pickup||$38,750||4||N/A||N/A|
|2011||2011 GMC Yukon 1500||GMC||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$38,945||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 GMC Sierra Hybrid||GMC||Hybrid||Pickup||$39,095||4||20/23/21||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 GMC Sierra 2500HD||GMC||Diesel||Pickup||$39,340||4||N/A||N/A|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Volt||Chevrolet||Plug-In Hybrid||Sedan||$40,280||4||35/40/37||Battery+Premium|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Suburban||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$41,335||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Audi A5 Cabriolet||Audi||High MPG||Convertible||$42,000||2||23/30/26||Premium|
|2011||2011 Lexus IS 250 C||Lexus||High MPG||Convertible||$42,360||2||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 GMC Savana||GMC||Diesel||Van||$44,110||3||N/A||N/A|
|2011||2011 BMW 335d||BMW||Diesel||Sedan||$44,150||4||23/36/27||Diesel|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Express||Chevrolet||Diesel||Van||$44,505||3||N/A||N/A|
|2011||2011 Lexus RX 450h||Lexus||Hybrid||SUV||$44,735||4||32/28/30||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Toyota Sequoia||Toyota||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$44,780||4||9/12/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 BMW 528i||BMW||High MPG||Sedan||$45,050||4||22/32/25||Premium|
|2011||2011 Audi A6||Audi||High MPG||Sedan||$45,200||4||21/30/24||Premium|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Silverado HD||Chevrolet||Diesel||Pickup||$45,400||4||N/A||N/A|
|2011||2011 Lincoln Town Car||Lincoln||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$47,225||4||12/17/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen Touareg TDI||Volkswagen||Diesel||SUV||$47,950||4||19/28/22||Diesel|
|2011||2011 Audi TT Roadster quattro||Audi||High MPG||Convertible||$50,000||2||22/31/26||Premium|
|2011||2011 BMW 535i||BMW||High MPG||Sedan||$50,100||4||20/30/24||Premium|
|2011||2011 Mercedes-Benz ML350 Bluetec||Mercedes||Diesel||SUV||$50,490||4||18/25/21||Diesel|
|2011||2011 Mercedes-Benz E350 Bluetec||Mercedes||Diesel||Sedan||$50,900||4||22/33/26||Diesel|
|2011||2011 Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid||Chevrolet||Hybrid||SUV||$51,145||4||20/23/21||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Audi Q7 TDI||Audi||Diesel||SUV||$51,450||4||17/25/20||Diesel|
|2011||2011 GMC Yukon Hybrid||GMC||Hybrid||SUV||$51,610||4||20/23/21||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Mercedes-Benz R350 Bluetec||Mercedes||Diesel||SUV||$51,740||4||18/24/20||Diesel|
|2011||2011 BMW X5 xDrive 35d||BMW||Diesel||SUV||$51,800||4||19/26/22||Diesel|
|2011||2011 Mercedes-Benz ML450 Hybrid||Mercedes||Hybrid||SUV||$55,790||4||20/24/22||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 BMW 535i Gran Turismo||BMW||High MPG||Sedan||$56,500||4||20/30/24||Premium|
|2011||2011 Lincoln Navigator||Lincoln||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$57,630||4||10/15/2012||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Lexus GS 450h||Lexus||Hybrid||Sedan||$58,950||4||22/25/23||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Volkswagen Touareg Hybrid||Volkswagen||Hybrid||SUV||$60,565||4||20/24/21||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Mercedes-Benz GL350 Bluetec||Mercedes||Diesel||SUV||$60,950||4||17/21/19||Diesel|
|2011||2011 Cadillac Escalade EXT||Cadillac||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$61,885||4||9/13/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Cadillac Escalade||Cadillac||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$63,160||4||10/15/2012||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid||Porsche||Hybrid||SUV||$67,700||4||20/24/21||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Cadillac Escalade Hybrid||Cadillac||Hybrid||SUV||$73,840||4||20/23/21||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 BMW ActiveHybrid X6||BMW||Hybrid||SUV||$88,900||4||17/19/18||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Mercedes-Benz S400 Hybrid||Mercedes||Hybrid||Sedan||$91,000||4||19/25/21||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 BMW ActiveHybrid 750i||BMW||Hybrid||Sedan||$97,000||4||17/24/20||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 BMW ActiveHybrid 750Li||BMW||Hybrid||Sedan||$101,000||4||17/24/20||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Tesla Motors Roadster 2.5||Tesla||Electric Car||Convertible||$109,000||2||N/A||N/A|
|2011||2011 Lexus LS 600h L||Lexus||Hybrid||Sedan||$112,250||4||19/23/20||Gas+Battery|
|2011||2011 Bentley Continental Flying Spur||Bentley||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$181,200||4||8/13/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Bentley Continental GTC||Bentley||E85 Flex-Fuel||Convertible||$205,600||2||8/13/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Bentley Continental Supersports||Bentley||E85 Flex-Fuel||Coupe||$267,000||2||8/14/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Bentley Continental Supersports Convertible ISR||Bentley||E85 Flex-Fuel||Convertible||$280,400||2||8/14/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Honda FCX Clarity FCEV||Honda||Fuel Cell||Sedan||4||/61/||H2+Battery|
|2011||2011 Mahindra TR40||Mahindra||Diesel||Pickup||2||19/21/20||Diesel|
|2011||2011 Ford Crown Victoria FFV||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||4||12/17/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2011||2011 Mahindra REVA NXR||Mahindra||Electric Car||3-Door Hatchback||2||N/A||N/A|
|2011||2011 smart fortwo electric drive coupe||Smart||Electric Car||Coupe||2||N/A||N/A|
|2011||2011 smart fortwo electric drive cabriolet||Smart||Electric Car||Convertible||2||N/A||N/A|
|2011||2011 Kia Forte Eco||Kia||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||4||27/37/30||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Toyota Matrix||Toyota||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||4||26/32/29||Gasoline|
|2011||2011 Kia Optima Hybrid||Kia||Hybrid||Sedan||4||35/40/||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Hyundai Accent||Hyundai||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$9,970||2||27/36/31||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Kia Rio||Kia||High MPG||Sedan||$11,695||4||27/36/30||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Aveo||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$11,965||4||27/35/30||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 smart fortwo coupe||Smart||High MPG||Coupe||$11,990||2||33/41/36||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Aveo 5||Chevrolet||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$12,115||4||27/35/30||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Toyota Yaris||Toyota||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$12,605||2||29/36/32||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Toyota Yaris||Toyota||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$12,905||4||29/36/32||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Kia Soul||Kia||High MPG||Station Wagon||$13,300||4||26/31/28||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Toyota Yaris||Toyota||High MPG||Sedan||$13,365||4||29/36/32||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Nissan Versa||Nissan||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$13,400||4||28/34/30||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Hyundai Accent||Hyundai||High MPG||Sedan||$13,645||4||27/36/30||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Kia Forte||Kia||High MPG||Sedan||$13,695||4||27/36/30||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Nissan Cube||Nissan||High MPG||Station Wagon||$13,990||4||27/31/29||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Hyundai Elantra||Hyundai||High MPG||Sedan||$14,145||4||26/35/29||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Mitsubishi Lancer||Mitsubishi||High MPG||Sedan||$14,790||4||22/31/25||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Honda Fit||Honda||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$14,900||4||28/35/31||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Scion xD||Scion||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$14,900||4||27/33/29||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Cobalt XFE||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$14,990||4||25/37/30||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Cobalt XFE||Chevrolet||High MPG||Coupe||$14,990||2||25/37/30||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Mazda Mazda3 4-Door||Mazda||High MPG||Sedan||$15,345||4||25/33/28||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Nissan Sentra||Nissan||High MPG||Sedan||$15,420||4||26/34/29||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Toyota Corolla||Toyota||High MPG||Sedan||$15,450||4||26/35/30||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Honda Civic Coupe||Honda||High MPG||Coupe||$15,455||2||25/36/29||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Hyundai Elantra Touring||Hyundai||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$15,525||4||23/31/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Honda Civic Sedan||Honda||High MPG||Sedan||$15,655||4||25/36/29||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Pontiac Vibe||Pontiac||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$16,100||4||26/32/28||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Suzuki SX4 Sedan||Suzuki||High MPG||Sedan||$16,199||4||23/33/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Ford Focus||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$16,290||4||24/35/28||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Toyota Matrix||Toyota||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$16,700||4||26/32/28||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Suzuki SX4 Crossover||Suzuki||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$16,899||4||22/30/25||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 smart fortwo passion cabriolet||Smart||High MPG||Convertible||$16,990||2||33/41/36||Premium|
|2010||2010 Ford Focus||Ford||High MPG||Coupe||$17,170||2||24/35/28||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Dodge Caliber||Dodge||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$17,510||4||23/31/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen Golf||Volkswagen||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$17,620||2||23/30/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen Jetta||Volkswagen||High MPG||Sedan||$17,735||4||24/32/27||Premium|
|2010||2010 Kia Optima||Kia||High MPG||Sedan||$17,995||4||22/32/25||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Mazda Mazda6||Mazda||High MPG||Sedan||$18,600||4||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Hyundai Sonata||Hyundai||High MPG||Sedan||$18,700||4||22/32/25||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet HHR||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$18,720||4||16/23/19||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet HHR||Chevrolet||High MPG||SUV||$18,720||4||22/32/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Hyundai Tuscon||Hyundai||High MPG||SUV||$18,995||4||23/31/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Suzuki Kizashi||Suzuki||High MPG||Sedan||$18,999||4||23/31/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen Golf||Volkswagen||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$19,335||4||23/30/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Toyota Camry||Toyota||High MPG||Sedan||$19,395||4||22/33/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 MINI Cooper||MINI||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$19,400||2||28/37/32||Premium|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen Jetta SportWagen||Volkswagen||High MPG||Station Wagon||$19,510||4||23/30/25||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Ford Fusion||Ford||High MPG||Sedan||$19,695||4||22/31/25||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Honda Insight||Honda||Hybrid||Sedan||$19,800||4||40/43/41||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Nissan Altima||Nissan||High MPG||Sedan||$19,900||4||23/32/27||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Subaru Legacy||Subaru||High MPG||Sedan||$19,995||4||23/31/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 MINI Cooper Clubman||MINI||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$20,450||2||28/36/31||Premium|
|2010||2010 Chrysler Sebring||Chrysler||High MPG||Sedan||$20,860||4||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Dodge Avenger||Dodge||High MPG||Sedan||$20,970||4||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Honda Accord Sedan||Honda||High MPG||Sedan||$21,055||4||22/31/25||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Mitsubishi Galant||Mitsubishi||High MPG||Sedan||$21,599||4||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Honda FCX Clarity||Honda||Fuel Cell||Sedan||$21,600||4||//||H2+Battery|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Malibu||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$21,825||4||22/33/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Mercury Milan||Mercury||High MPG||Sedan||$21,860||4||22/31/25||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Toyota Prius||Toyota||Hybrid||Sedan||$22,000||4||51/48/50||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen Golf||Volkswagen||Diesel||3-Door Hatchback||$22,155||2||30/42/34||Diesel|
|2010||2010 Hyundai Genesis Coupe||Hyundai||High MPG||Coupe||$22,250||2||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Honda Accord Coupe||Honda||High MPG||Coupe||$22,555||2||22/31/25||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Equinox||Chevrolet||High MPG||SUV||$22,615||4||22/32/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen Golf||Volkswagen||Diesel||5-Door Hatchback||$22,760||4||30/42/34||Diesel|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen Jetta TDI||Volkswagen||Diesel||Sedan||$22,830||4||30/42/34||Diesel|
|2010||2010 Nissan Altima Coupe||Nissan||High MPG||Coupe||$22,940||2||23/32/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen GTI 2-Door||Volkswagen||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$23,465||4||24/32/27||Premium|
|2010||2010 Ford Fusion||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$23,715||4||13/20/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Honda Civic Hybrid||Honda||Hybrid||Sedan||$23,800||4||40/45/42||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Dodge Grand Caravan||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Minivan||$23,995||4||12/17/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Ford Escape||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$24,045||4||14/19/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen GTI 4-Door||Volkswagen||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$24,070||4||24/32/27||Premium|
|2010||2010 Volvo C30||Volvo||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$24,100||2||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Impala||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$24,290||4||14/22/17||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen Jetta SportWagen TDI||Volkswagen||Diesel||Station Wagon||$24,615||4||30/42/34||Diesel|
|2010||2010 MINI Cooper Convertible||MINI||High MPG||Convertible||$24,950||2||28/36/31||Premium|
|2010||2010 Mercury Milan||Mercury||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$25,000||4||13/20/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Chrysler Sebring||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$25,105||4||14/20/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Honda Civic GX NGV||Honda||CNG||Sedan||$25,340||4||24/36/28||Natural Gas|
|2010||2010 Dodge Ram Dakota||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$25,430||2||9/13/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid||Chevrolet||Hybrid||Sedan||$25,555||4||26/34/29||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Mercury Mariner||Mercury||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$25,630||4||14/19/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Chrysler Town and Country||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Minivan||$25,995||4||12/17/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Toyota Camry Hybrid||Toyota||Hybrid||Sedan||$26,150||4||33/34/34||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Volvo S40||Volvo||High MPG||Sedan||$26,200||4||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Nissan Altima Hybrid||Nissan||Hybrid||Sedan||$26,780||4||35/33/34||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Dodge Ram 1500||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$27,000||4||9/13/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Mazda Tribute||Mazda||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$27,165||4||14/19/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen Passat||Volkswagen||High MPG||Sedan||$27,195||4||22/31/25||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Audi A3||Audi||High MPG||Station Wagon||$27,270||4||21/30/24||Premium|
|2010||2010 Ford Fusion Hybrid||Ford||Hybrid||Sedan||$27,270||4||41/36/39||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Ford F-150||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$27,385||2||10/14/2012||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen CC||Volkswagen||High MPG||Sedan||$27,760||4||22/31/25||Premium|
|2010||2010 Ford E-150 Wagon||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||Van||$27,970||3||N/A||N/A|
|2010||2010 Mazda Tribute Hybrid||Mazda||Hybrid||SUV||$28,175||4||34/31/32||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Mercury Milan Hybrid||Mercury||Hybrid||Sedan||$28,180||4||41/36/39||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 GMC Savana||GMC||E85 Flex-Fuel||Van||$28,515||3||10/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Volvo V50||Volvo||High MPG||Station Wagon||$28,700||4||21/30/24||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen Passat Wagon||Volkswagen||High MPG||Station Wagon||$28,755||4||22/31/25||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Saab 9-3 Sport Sedan||Saab||High MPG||Sedan||$28,900||4||21/31/24||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Saturn Vue Hybrid||Saturn||Hybrid||SUV||$28,905||4||25/32/28||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Nissan Titan||Nissan||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$29,090||4||9/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Buick Lucerne||Buick||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$29,230||4||13/20/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Acura TSX||Acura||High MPG||Sedan||$29,310||4||21/30/25||Premium|
|2010||2010 Mercury Grand Marquis||Mercury||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$29,410||4||12/17/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Express||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Van||$29,495||3||10/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Ford Escape Hybrid||Ford||Hybrid||SUV||$29,860||4||34/31/32||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Audi A3 TDI||Audi||Diesel||Station Wagon||$29,950||4||30/42/34||Diesel|
|2010||2010 Chrysler Sebring Convertible||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Convertible||$29,950||2||13/19/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Mercury Mariner Hybrid||Mercury||Hybrid||SUV||$29,995||4||34/31/32||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Toyota Tundra||Toyota||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$30,290||4||10/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Saab 9-3 Sport Combi||Saab||High MPG||Station Wagon||$30,330||4||21/31/24||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Audi A4||Audi||High MPG||Sedan||$31,450||4||23/30/26||Premium|
|2010||2010 GMC Sierra 1500||GMC||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$32,090||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen Eos||Volkswagen||High MPG||Convertible||$32,390||2||21/31/25||Premium|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Silverado XFE||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$33,225||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Mercedes-Benz C300||Mercedes||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$33,600||4||13/19/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Lexus HS 250h||Lexus||Hybrid||Sedan||$34,200||4||35/34/35||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Toyota Highlander Hybrid||Toyota||Hybrid||SUV||$34,900||4||27/25/26||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Ford Expedition||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$35,085||4||9/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Avalanche||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$35,725||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Audi A5||Audi||High MPG||Coupe||$36,000||2||22/30/25||Premium|
|2010||2010 Nissan Armada||Nissan||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$37,210||4||9/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Tahoe||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$37,280||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid||Chevrolet||Hybrid||Pickup||$38,340||4||21/22/22||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 GMC Sierra Hybrid||GMC||Hybrid||Pickup||$38,710||4||21/22/22||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 GMC Yukon 1500||GMC||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$38,925||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Suburban||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$40,635||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Lexus RX 450h||Lexus||Hybrid||SUV||$41,660||4||32/28/30||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Audi A5 Cabriolet||Audi||High MPG||Convertible||$42,000||2||23/30/26||Premium|
|2010||2010 Toyota Sequoia||Toyota||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$42,880||4||9/12/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 BMW 335d||BMW||Diesel||Sedan||$43,950||4||23/36/27||Diesel|
|2010||2010 Volkswagen Touareg TDI||Volkswagen||Diesel||SUV||$44,350||4||18/25/20||Diesel|
|2010||2010 Lincoln Town Car||Lincoln||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$46,525||4||12/17/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Mercedes-Benz R350 Bluetec||Mercedes||Diesel||SUV||$49,300||4||18/24/20||Diesel|
|2010||2010 Mercedes-Benz ML350 Bluetec||Mercedes||Diesel||SUV||$49,700||4||18/25/21||Diesel|
|2010||2010 Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid||Chevrolet||Hybrid||SUV||$50,720||4||21/22/22||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Audi Q7 TDI||Audi||Diesel||SUV||$50,900||4||17/25/20||Diesel|
|2010||2010 GMC Yukon Hybrid||GMC||Hybrid||SUV||$51,185||4||21/22/22||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 BMW X5 xDrive 35d||BMW||Diesel||SUV||$51,300||4||19/26/22||Diesel|
|2010||2010 Lincoln Navigator FFV||Lincoln||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$54,400||4||9/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Mercedes-Benz ML450 Hybrid||Mercedes||Hybrid||SUV||$55,000||4||21/24/22||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Lexus GS 450h||Lexus||Hybrid||Sedan||$57,450||4||22/25/23||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Mercedes-Benz GL350 Bluetec||Mercedes||Diesel||SUV||$59,950||4||17/23/19||Diesel|
|2010||2010 Cadillac Escalade||Cadillac||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$62,495||4||10/16/2012||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Cadillac Escalade Hybrid||Cadillac||Hybrid||SUV||$73,425||4||21/22/22||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Mercedes-Benz S400 Hybrid||Mercedes||Hybrid||Sedan||$87,950||4||19/26/21||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 BMW ActiveHybrid X6||BMW||Hybrid||SUV||$88,900||4||17/19/18||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Lexus LS 600h L||Lexus||Hybrid||Sedan||$108,800||4||20/22/21||Gas+Battery|
|2010||2010 Tesla Motors Roadster||Tesla||Electric Car||Convertible||$109,000||2||N/A||N/A|
|2010||2010 Pontiac G6||Pontiac||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||4||15/23/18||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 Saturn Aura||Saturn||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||4||15/23/18||E85 Ethanol|
|2010||2010 FIAT 500C||Fiat||High MPG||Convertible||2||N/A||N/A|
|2010||2010 Pontiac G5||Pontiac||High MPG||Coupe||2||25/35/29||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Pontiac G3||Pontiac||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||4||27/35/30||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Pontiac G3||Pontiac||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||2||27/35/30||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Pontiac G5 XFE||Pontiac||High MPG||Coupe||2||25/37/30||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Pontiac G6||Pontiac||High MPG||Sedan||4||22/33/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Saturn Aura||Saturn||High MPG||Sedan||4||22/33/26||Gasoline|
|2010||2010 Saturn Aura Hybrid||Saturn||Hybrid||Sedan||4||26/34/29||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Hyundai Accent||Hyundai||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$9,970||2||27/33/29||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet Aveo 5||Chevrolet||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$11,965||4||27/34/30||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet Aveo||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$11,965||4||27/34/30||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 smart fortwo||Smart||High MPG||Coupe||$11,990||2||33/41/36||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 Toyota Yaris||Toyota||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$12,205||2||29/36/32||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 Hyundai Accent||Hyundai||High MPG||Sedan||$12,920||4||27/33/29||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 Toyota Yaris||Toyota||High MPG||Sedan||$12,965||4||29/36/32||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 Toyota Yaris||Toyota||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$13,305||4||29/36/32||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 Pontiac G3||Pontiac||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$14,335||4||27/34/30||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 Honda Fit||Honda||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$14,750||4||28/35/31||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet Cobalt XFE||Chevrolet||High MPG||Coupe||$14,990||2||25/37/30||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet Cobalt XFE||Chevrolet||High MPG||Sedan||$14,990||4||25/37/30||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 Pontiac Vibe||Pontiac||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$16,100||4||26/32/28||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 Toyota Matrix||Toyota||High MPG||5-Door Hatchback||$16,290||4||26/32/28||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 Pontiac G5 XFE||Pontiac||High MPG||Coupe||$16,930||2||25/37/30||Gasoline|
|2009||2009 smart fortwo passion cabriolet||Smart||High MPG||Convertible||$16,990||2||33/41/36||Premium|
|2009||2009 MINI Cooper||MINI||High MPG||3-Door Hatchback||$18,550||2||28/37/32||Premium|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet HHR||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$18,720||4||16/23/19||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Honda FCX Clarity||Honda||Fuel Cell||Sedan||$21,600||4||77/67/||H2+Battery|
|2009||2009 Toyota Prius||Toyota||Hybrid||Sedan||$22,000||4||48/45/46||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Volkswagen Jetta TDI||Volkswagen||Diesel||Sedan||$22,270||4||30/41/34||Diesel|
|2009||2009 Chrysler Sebring||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$23,110||4||13/20/16||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Honda Civic Hybrid||Honda||Hybrid||Sedan||$23,650||4||40/45/42||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet Impala||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$23,790||4||14/22/17||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Volkswagen Jetta SportWagen TDI||Volkswagen||Diesel||Station Wagon||$23,870||4||30/41/34||Diesel|
|2009||2009 MINI Cooper Convertible||MINI||High MPG||Convertible||$24,550||2||28/36/32||Premium|
|2009||2009 Dodge Grand Caravan||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Minivan||$24,710||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Honda Civic GX NGV||Honda||CNG||Sedan||$25,190||4||24/36/28||Natural Gas|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid||Chevrolet||Hybrid||Sedan||$25,555||4||26/34/29||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Toyota Camry Hybrid||Toyota||Hybrid||Sedan||$26,150||4||33/34/34||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Nissan Altima Hybrid||Nissan||Hybrid||Sedan||$26,650||4||35/33/34||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Saturn Aura Hybrid||Saturn||Hybrid||Sedan||$27,045||4||26/34/29||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Chrysler Town and Country||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Minivan||$27,160||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Dodge Dakota||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$27,465||4||9/13/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Ford E-150 FFV||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||Van||$28,165||3||N/A||N/A|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet Express||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Van||$28,475||3||9/12/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 GMC Savana||GMC||E85 Flex-Fuel||Van||$28,475||3||9/12/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Chrysler Sebring Convertible||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||Convertible||$28,530||2||12/19/2015||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Nissan Titan||Nissan||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$28,700||4||9/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Saturn Vue Hybrid||Saturn||Hybrid||SUV||$28,905||4||25/32/28||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Mercury Grand Marquis||Mercury||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$29,125||4||12/17/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Dodge Durango||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$29,190||4||9/13/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Buick Lucerne||Buick||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$29,265||4||13/20/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Dodge Ram||Dodge||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$29,530||4||9/13/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Ford Escape Hybrid||Ford||Hybrid||SUV||$29,645||4||34/31/32||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Mazda Tribute Hybrid||Mazda||Hybrid||SUV||$29,925||4||34/31/32||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Mercury Mariner Hybrid||Mercury||Hybrid||SUV||$30,090||4||34/31/32||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 GMC Sierra 15 XFE||GMC||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$31,035||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Ford F-150 FFV||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$32,035||4||10/14/2012||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Mercedes-Benz C300||Mercedes||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$32,900||4||13/19/15||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet Silverado XFE||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$32,905||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Toyota Highlander Hybrid||Toyota||Hybrid||SUV||$34,700||4||27/25/26||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Ford Expedition FFV||Ford||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$34,845||4||10/14/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Jeep Grand Cherokee||Jeep||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$35,445||4||9/13/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet Avalanche||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||Pickup||$35,460||4||10/15/2012||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Chrysler Aspen||Chrysler||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$35,580||4||9/13/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Jeep Commander||Jeep||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$36,725||4||9/13/2010||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Nissan Armada||Nissan||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$37,210||4||9/13/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid||Chevrolet||Hybrid||Pickup||$38,020||4||21/22/21||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet Tahoe XFE||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$38,165||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 GMC Sierra Hybrid||GMC||Hybrid||Pickup||$38,390||4||21/22/21||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 GMC Yukon XFE||GMC||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$38,905||4||11/16/2013||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet Suburban||Chevrolet||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$40,370||4||10/15/2012||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Volkswagen Touareg 2 TDI||Volkswagen||Diesel||SUV||$42,800||4||17/25/20||Diesel|
|2009||2009 Dodge Ram 2500||Dodge||Diesel||Pickup||$43,540||4||N/A||N/A|
|2009||2009 BMW 335d||BMW||Diesel||Sedan||$43,900||4||23/36/27||Diesel|
|2009||2009 Dodge Durango Hybrid||Dodge||Hybrid||SUV||$45,890||4||20/22/21||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Chrysler Aspen Hybrid||Chrysler||Hybrid||SUV||$46,120||4||20/22/21||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Lincoln Town Car||Lincoln||E85 Flex-Fuel||Sedan||$46,385||4||12/17/2014||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Mercedes-Benz ML320 Bluetec||Mercedes||Diesel||SUV||$48,600||4||18/24/20||Diesel|
|2009||2009 Mercedes-Benz R320 Bluetec||Mercedes||Diesel||SUV||$49,150||4||18/24/20||Diesel|
|2009||2009 Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid||Chevrolet||Hybrid||SUV||$50,455||4||21/22/21||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Audi Q7 TDI||Audi||Diesel||SUV||$50,900||4||17/25/20||Diesel|
|2009||2009 GMC Yukon Hybrid||GMC||Hybrid||SUV||$50,920||4||21/22/21||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 BMW X5 xDrive 35d||BMW||Diesel||SUV||$51,200||4||19/26/22||Diesel|
|2009||2009 Lincoln Navigator FFV||Lincoln||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$53,120||4||10/14/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Mercedes-Benz E320 Bluetec||Mercedes||Diesel||Sedan||$54,200||4||23/32/26||Diesel|
|2009||2009 Lexus GS 450h||Lexus||Hybrid||Sedan||$56,550||4||22/25/23||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Mercedes-Benz GL320 Bluetec||Mercedes||Diesel||SUV||$58,200||4||17/23/19||Diesel|
|2009||2009 Cadillac Escalade||Cadillac||E85 Flex-Fuel||SUV||$62,205||4||10/14/2011||E85 Ethanol|
|2009||2009 Cadillac Escalade Hybrid||Cadillac||Hybrid||SUV||$73,135||4||20/21/20||Gas+Battery|
|2009||2009 Tesla Motors Roadster||Tesla||Electric Car||Convertible||$101,500||2||N/A||N/A|
|2009||2009 Lexus LS 600h L||Lexus||Hybrid||Sedan||$106,035||4||20/22/21||Gas+Battery|
|2009||Audi Q7 V12 TDI||Audi||Diesel||SUV||4||N/A||N/A|
|2009||2009 MINI MINI E||MINI||Electric Car||3-Door Hatchback||2||N/A||N/A|
List of Online References
- http://www.caa.ca/evstations/ (good for Canada)